How to format your references using the Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.R. Olsen, Disease models: Statins give bone growth a boost, Nature. 513 (2014) 494–495.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.K. Binder, D.E. Griffin, Interferon-gamma-mediated site-specific clearance of alphavirus from CNS neurons, Science. 293 (2001) 303–306.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.J. Advani, M. Rajagopalan, P.H. Reddy, Calmodulin-like protein from M. tuberculosis H37Rv is required during infection, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6861.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Lilliu, C. Maragliano, M. Hampton, M. Elliott, M. Stefancich, M. Chiesa, M.S. Dahlem, J.E. Macdonald, EFM data mapped into 2D images of tip-sample contact potential difference and capacitance second derivative, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3352.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.S. Means, Green Building:, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
T. Anderson, Beginning Microsoft Word 2010, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Cimolini, K. Cannell, Project Management, in: K. Cannell (Ed.), Agile Oracle Application Express, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2012: pp. 91–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids.

Blog post
J. Fang, This Microbe’s Hair is Actually a Nanowire for Powering Itself, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Highway Infrastructure: Perceptions of Stakeholders on Approaches to Reduce Highway Project Completion Time, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Doss, Trapped within the white gaze: A DuBoisian approach to understanding the existential burden of being a black man in America, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, Wheeler and Gsellman Join the Mets’ Rotation, New York Times. (2017) B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Non-Crystalline Solids
AbbreviationJ. Non Cryst. Solids
ISSN (print)0022-3093
ScopeCeramics and Composites
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

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