How to format your references using the Journal of Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burkard G: Physics. Splitting spin states on a chip. Science 327:650–651, 2010
A journal article with 2 authors
Weiss H, Bradley RS: Archaeology. What drives societal collapse? Science 291:609–610, 2001
A journal article with 3 authors
Singh SK, Yamashita A, Gouaux E: Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters. Nature 448:952–956, 2007
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Navin N, Kendall J, Troge J, Andrews P, Rodgers L, McIndoo J, et al: Tumour evolution inferred by single-cell sequencing. Nature 472:90–94, 2011

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris SA: Food and Package Engineering. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011
An edited book
Green JE, Ried T (eds): Genetically Engineered Mice for Cancer Research: Design, Analysis, Pathways, Validation and Pre-Clinical Testing. New York, NY: Springer, 2012
A chapter in an edited book
Kong L-A, Wu W-J: The Construction of the Security Ability System in Coal Enterprise, in Jin D , Lin S (eds): Advances in Electronic Engineering, Communication and Management Vol.2: Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Electronic Engineering, Communication and Management (EECM 2011), Held on December 24–25, 2011, Beijing, China, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, pp 19–24

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Davis J: Diet Of Corn Is Turning French Hamsters Into Infant-Devouring Cannibals. IFLScience:2017 Available: Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Social Security Administration’s Computer Systems Modernization Effort May Not Achieve Planned Objectives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lucky-Medford L: A gendered approach to synaesthesia using the poetry of John Keats and Emily Dickinson. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M, Rashbaum WK: Facing Critics, City Jails Chief Is Set to Resign. New York Times:A1, 2017

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurosurgery
AbbreviationJ. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)0022-3085
ISSN (online)1933-0693
ScopeClinical Neurology

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