How to format your references using the Journal of Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taubes G: Treat obesity as physiology, not physics. Nature 492:155, 2012
A journal article with 2 authors
Chaudhari K, Pradeep T: Spatiotemporal mapping of three dimensional rotational dynamics of single ultrasmall gold nanorods. Sci Rep 4:5948, 2014
A journal article with 3 authors
Pulendran B, Palucka K, Banchereau J: Sensing pathogens and tuning immune responses. Science 293:253–256, 2001
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Faulkner DR, Mitchell TM, Healy D, Heap MJ: Slip on “weak” faults by the rotation of regional stress in the fracture damage zone. Nature 444:922–925, 2006

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrington PJ: Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry for Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010
An edited book
Shi X, Chen Y (eds): Machine Translation: 10th China Workshop, CWMT 2014, Macau, China, November 4-6, 2014. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014
A chapter in an edited book
Daley JM, Paterson G, Drouillard KG: Bioamplification as a Bioaccumulation Mechanism for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Wildlife, in Whitacre DM (ed): Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Volume 227, Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp 107–155

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Luntz S: Stem Cell Therapy Success In Monkeys. IFLScience:2014 Available: Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Next Generation Air Transportation System: Information on Expenditures, Schedule, and Cost Estimates, Fiscal Years 2004 -- 2030. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2016

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simon JT: Classification of Mechanical and Electrical Response of High Performance Fiber Reinforced-Geopolymer Composites (HPFR-GPC). 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Galam S: Abstention, France’s last temptation. New York Times:0, 2017

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurosurgery
AbbreviationJ. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)0022-3085
ISSN (online)1933-0693
ScopeClinical Neurology

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