How to format your references using the Journal of Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Varis O: Resources: Curb vast water use in central Asia. Nature 514:27–29, 2014
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Schwämmle V, Herrmann HJ: Geomorphology: solitary wave behaviour of sand dunes. Nature 426:619–620, 2003
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
O’Rahilly S, Barroso I, Wareham NJ: Genetic factors in type 2 diabetes: the end of the beginning? Science 307:370–373, 2005
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Lee N, Maurange C, Ringrose L, Paro R: Suppression of Polycomb group proteins by JNK signalling induces transdetermination in Drosophila imaginal discs. Nature 438:234–237, 2005

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Wolf EL: Nanophysics of Solar and Renewable Energy. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2012
An edited book
1.
Ugarkovic D (ed): Long Non-Coding RNAs. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Różewski P, Bednarz J: Multimodal Perspective on Ontologies Combining Problem in Production Management Systems, in Omatu S , Bersini H , Corchado JM , Rodríguez S , Pawlewski P , Bucciarelli E (eds): Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence, 11th International Conference, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp 39–46

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurosurgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E: Human Experiments – The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly. IFLScience:2015 Available: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/human-experiments-good-bad-and-ugly/. Accessed 30 October 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office: Survey To Identify Models Used by Executive Agencies in the Policymaking Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Vestergaard EV: The shadow in Latvian mythological legends: A Jungian perspective. 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Gustines GG: Weak Sales Doom Black Panther Spinoff. New York Times:C3, 2017

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 5–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurosurgery
AbbreviationJ. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)0022-3085
ISSN (online)1933-0693
ScopeClinical Neurology
Surgery

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