How to format your references using the Journal of Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaston KJ: Ecology: the importance of being rare. Nature 487:46–47, 2012
A journal article with 2 authors
Gillon J, Yakir D: Influence of carbonic anhydrase activity in terrestrial vegetation on the 18O content of atmospheric CO2. Science 291:2584–2587, 2001
A journal article with 3 authors
Pettifer RF, Collins SP, Laundy D: Quadrupole transitions revealed by Borrmann spectroscopy. Nature 454:196–199, 2008
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pérez-Miles F, Panzera A, Ortiz-Villatoro D, Perdomo C: Silk production from tarantula feet questioned. Nature 461:E9; discussion E9-10, 2009

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ancheyta J: Modeling and Simulation of Catalytic Reactors for Petroleum Refining. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011
An edited book
Fages F, Rossi F, Soliman S (eds): Recent Advances in Constraints: 12th Annual ERCIM International Workshop on Constraint Solving and Constraint Logic Programming, CSCLP 2007 Rocquencourt, France, June 7-8, 2007 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008
A chapter in an edited book
Ho TB, Kawasaki S, Granat J: Knowledge Acquisition by Machine Learning and Data Mining, in Wierzbicki AP , Nakamori Y (eds): Creative Environments: Issues of Creativity Support for the Knowledge Civilization Age, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007, pp 69–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Fang J: How The Guitarfish Retracts Its Eyeballs Into Its Head. IFLScience:2015 Available: Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highway Infrastructure: Preliminary Information on the Timely Completion of Highway Construction Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shah N: High Performance Cryptography for Electronic Product Code for Internet of Things Applications. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman W: Colombia Rebels End Truce After a Government Attack. New York Times:A6, 2015

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurosurgery
AbbreviationJ. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)0022-3085
ISSN (online)1933-0693
ScopeClinical Neurology

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