How to format your references using the Health Economics, Policy and Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Economics, Policy and Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ashrafian, H. (2015), ‘Intelligent robots must uphold human rights’, Nature, 519(7544): 391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hespos, S. J. and Spelke, E. S. (2004), ‘Conceptual precursors to language’, Nature, 430(6998): 453–456.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alimardani, M., Nishio, S. and Ishiguro, H. (2013), ‘Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators’, Scientific reports, 3: 2396.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Huang, Y., Mao, K., Chen, X., Sun, M.-A., Kawabe, T., Li, W., et al. (2018), ‘S1P-dependent interorgan trafficking of group 2 innate lymphoid cells supports host defense’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 359(6371): 114–119.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jensen, R. C. (2012), Risk-Reduction Methods for Occupational Safety and Health. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Oraguzie, N. C., Rikkerink, E. H. A., Gardiner, S. E. and Silva, H. N. D., eds (2007), Association Mapping in Plants. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cleophas, T. J. and Zwinderman, A. H. (2013), ‘Bhattacharya Analysis’, in A. H. Zwinderman (ed.), Machine Learning in Medicine: Part Two. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 27–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Economics, Policy and Law.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016), ‘Researchers Stumble Across Unique Dolphin That Breathes Through Its Mouth’, IFLScience. IFLScience. [30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007), Health Information Technology: Early Efforts Initiated but Comprehensive Privacy Approach Needed for National Strategy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey, C. N. (2015), ‘The influence of gardens on resilience in older adults living in a continuing care community’. Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL, Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017), ‘Master’, New York Times, 5 January, C12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ashrafian, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ashrafian, 2015; Hespos and Spelke, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hespos and Spelke, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Economics, Policy and Law
AbbreviationHealth Econ. Policy Law
ISSN (print)1744-1331
ISSN (online)1744-134X
ScopeHealth Policy

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