How to format your references using the Journal of Neuroinflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neuroinflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Meyer-Lindenberg A. From maps to mechanisms through neuroimaging of schizophrenia. Nature. 2010;468:194–202.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Abbott A, Gitschel U. German scientists left in the cold as Berlin rejects rescue plan. Nature. 2000;406:663–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zhao M, Dong W, Wang A. Two-dimensional carbon topological insulators superior to graphene. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3532.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang C, Liu L, Cui X, Zheng L, Deng Y, Shi F. Chlorine as an indicator in the controllable preparation of active nano-gold catalyst. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Paret D, Huon J-P. Secure Connected Objects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Eigenmann R, Li Z, Midkiff SP, editors. Languages and Compilers for High Performance Computing: 17th International Workshop, LCPC 2004, West Lafayette, IN, USA, September 22-24, 2004, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Peeters S. Flash Catalyst: bridging the gap. In: Andres C, Anglin S, Beckner M, Buckingham E, Cornell G, Gennick J, et al., editors. Flash Builder and Flash Catalyst: The New Workflow. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2010. p. 99–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neuroinflammation.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Scientists Build Working Heart Tissue Out Of Spinach Leaves. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Computer Reservation Systems: Action Needed to Better Monitor the CRS Industry and Eliminate CRS Biases. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Mar. Report No.: RCED-92-130.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Skinner M. Enamel -dentine junction morphology of extant hominoid and fossil hominin lower molars [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Billard M. Scouting Report. New York Times. 2010 Jul 29;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neuroinflammation
AbbreviationJ. Neuroinflammation
ISSN (online)1742-2094
General Neuroscience
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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