How to format your references using the Journal of Neural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D 2004 The fertility riddle Nature 432 38–9
A journal article with 2 authors
Diamond A and Lee K 2011 Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old Science 333 959–64
A journal article with 3 authors
Ko H W, Jiang J and Edery I 2002 Role for Slimb in the degradation of Drosophila Period protein phosphorylated by Doubletime Nature 420 673–8
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Jiao Y, Wickett N J, Ayyampalayam S, Chanderbali A S, Landherr L, Ralph P E, Tomsho L P, Hu Y, Liang H, Soltis P S, Soltis D E, Clifton S W, Schlarbaum S E, Schuster S C, Ma H, Leebens-Mack J and dePamphilis C W 2011 Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms Nature 473 97–100

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiBattista M 2010 Novel Characters (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell)
An edited book
Gallego M and Schofield N 2016 The Political Economy of Social Choices (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Singh Z N and Gulley M L 2012 Myelodysplasia and Myeloid Proliferations Pediatric Neoplasia: Advances in Molecular Pathology and Translational Medicine ed A C Mackinnon Jr (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press) pp 75–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neural Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Study Finds Gamers Are Better Learners IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1990 Excess and Surplus Personal Property Transfer Program (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schlumbrecht C E 2015 Do Negative Experiences Influence Substance Use in Adolescent Males and Females? Doctoral dissertation ( Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J 2017 Selling Us a Better Vision of Ourselves New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neural Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Neural Eng.
ISSN (print)1741-2560
ISSN (online)1741-2552
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Other styles