How to format your references using the Journal of Neural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Auerbach E 2014 Iran needs to present a united front on science Nature 508 433
A journal article with 2 authors
Vakil A and Engheta N 2011 Transformation optics using graphene Science 332 1291–4
A journal article with 3 authors
Wynn T A, Chawla A and Pollard J W 2013 Macrophage biology in development, homeostasis and disease Nature 496 445–55
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Warne T, Serrano-Vega M J, Baker J G, Moukhametzianov R, Edwards P C, Henderson R, Leslie A G W, Tate C G and Schertler G F X 2008 Structure of a beta1-adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptor Nature 454 486–91

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent O, Petit J-P and Gurle D 2005 Beyond VoIP Protocols (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Kirkwood D H 2010 Semi-solid Processing of Alloys vol 124, ed M Suéry, P Kapranos, H V Atkinson and K P Young (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Snarskii A A, Bezsudnov I V, Sevryukov V A, Morozovskiy A and Malinsky J 2016 Effective Conductivity of Percolation Media Transport Processes in Macroscopically Disordered Media: From Mean Field Theory to Percolation ed I V Bezsudnov, V A Sevryukov, A Morozovskiy and J Malinsky (New York, NY: Springer) pp 47–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neural Engineering.

Blog post
Taub B 2016 Canadian Doctors Can Now Prescribe Heroin To Addicts IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2000 Financial Audit: District of Columbia Highway Trust Fund’s Fiscal Year 1999 and 1998 Financial Statements (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hidalgo F 2017 Light of Hope Recuperative Care Center, LLC: A Business Plan Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S 2014 Tatiana Samoilova, 80, Soviet Movie Star New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neural Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Neural Eng.
ISSN (print)1741-2560
ISSN (online)1741-2552
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Other styles