How to format your references using the Journal of Neural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schrope M 2000 Climatology. Trouble in the greenhouse Nature 407 10–2
A journal article with 2 authors
Shao S and Hegde R S 2014 Cell Biology. Local synthesis and disposal Science 346 701–2
A journal article with 3 authors
Rowe T B, Macrini T E and Luo Z-X 2011 Fossil evidence on origin of the mammalian brain Science 332 955–7
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Bello A, Chand A, Aviles J, Soule G, Auricchio A and Kobinger G P 2014 Novel adeno-associated viruses derived from pig tissues transduce most major organs in mice Sci. Rep. 4 6644

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu J, Dong X, Chen X, Tong X, Zhang X and Xu S 2016 Fault Location and Service Restoration for Electrical Distribution Systems (Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd)
An edited book
Wiegandt E 2008 Mountains: Sources of Water, Sources of Knowledge vol 31 (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Kurematsu M, Hakura J and Fujita H 2015 A Framework for a Decision Tree Learning Algorithm with K-NN Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques: 13th International Conference, SoMeT 2014, Langkawi, Malaysia, September 22-24, 2014. Revised Selected Papers Communications in Computer and Information Science ed H Fujita and A Selamat (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 39–51

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neural Engineering.

Blog post
Davis J 2015 Scientists Determine Body Temperature Of Dinosaurs By Analyzing Fossil Eggshells IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1996 Measuring Performance: The Advanced Technology Program and Private-Sector Funding (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vestergaard E V 2015 The shadow in Latvian mythological legends: A Jungian perspective Doctoral dissertation (Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C 1999 The Sailors Of Winter: In the Cold, Cold Sea New York Times 812

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neural Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Neural Eng.
ISSN (print)1741-2560
ISSN (online)1741-2552
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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