How to format your references using the Journal of Neural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Desplan C 2007 Time to pick the fly’s brain Nature 450 173
A journal article with 2 authors
Fields R D and Stevens-Graham B 2002 New insights into neuron-glia communication Science 298 556–62
A journal article with 3 authors
Singh S K, Yamashita A and Gouaux E 2007 Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters Nature 448 952–6
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Lu L-M, Mao L-F, Yang T, Ye J-F, Liu B, Li H-L, Sun M, Miller J T, Mathews S, Hu H-H, Niu Y-T, Peng D-X, Chen Y-H, Smith S A, Chen M, Xiang K-L, Le C-T, Dang V-C, Lu A-M, Soltis P S, Soltis D E, Li J-H and Chen Z-D 2018 Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China Nature 554 234–8

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau D, Fatu A and Souchet D 2014 Thermo-Hydrodynamic Lubrication in Hydrodynamic Bearings (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Misra S, Woungang I and Chandra Misra S 2009 Guide to Wireless Ad Hoc Networks (London: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Moumtzoglou A and Kastania A 2013 An Expository Discourse of E-Health Systems Analysis Tools for Better Health Care Delivery Springer Optimization and Its Applications ed P M Pardalos, P G Georgiev, P Papajorgji and B Neugaard (New York, NY: Springer) pp 49–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neural Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 How World War II Spurred Vaccine Innovation IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1990 CROSSTALK and Mirror: What’s New Under the CROSSTALK Standard--Part 1 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rountree B L 2010 Theory and practice of dynamic voltage /frequency scaling in the high performance computing environment Doctoral dissertation (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L 2006 Route 110 Plan Worries Some Merchants New York Times LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neural Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Neural Eng.
ISSN (print)1741-2560
ISSN (online)1741-2552
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Other styles