How to format your references using the Journal of Neural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goudsmit J 2009 Obituary: Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (1923-2008) Nature 457 394
A journal article with 2 authors
Hong S Y and Kalnay E 2000 Role of sea surface temperature and soil-moisture feedback in the 1998 Oklahoma-Texas drought Nature 408 842–4
A journal article with 3 authors
Matter N, Herrlich P and König H 2002 Signal-dependent regulation of splicing via phosphorylation of Sam68 Nature 420 691–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Cokus S J, Feng S, Zhang X, Chen Z, Merriman B, Haudenschild C D, Pradhan S, Nelson S F, Pellegrini M and Jacobsen S E 2008 Shotgun bisulphite sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome reveals DNA methylation patterning Nature 452 215–9

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rouse W B 2016 Universities as Complex Enterprises (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
An edited book
Javidi B and Fournel T 2010 Information Optics and Photonics: Algorithms, Systems, and Applications (New York, NY: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Daněk M, Kafka L, Kohout L, Sýkora J and Bartosiński R 2013 UTLEON3 Programming by Example UTLEON3: Exploring Fine-Grain Multi-Threading in FPGAs ed L Kafka, L Kohout, J Sýkora and R Bartosinski (New York, NY: Springer) pp 67–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neural Engineering.

Blog post
Hale T 2016 There Could Be Some Big Cybersecurity Issues With “Pokémon Go” IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1996 Federal R&D Laboratories (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrin J L 2014 Sitting in the Fire: An Exploration of Soul-Making in Prison Doctoral dissertation (Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J 2017 Dance Moves Only for Males New York Times D5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neural Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Neural Eng.
ISSN (print)1741-2560
ISSN (online)1741-2552
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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