How to format your references using the Serdica Journal of Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Serdica Journal of Computing (SJC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1] Simpson, F. Resistance to mantle flow inferred from the electromagnetic strike of the Australian upper mantle, Nature. 412 (2001) 632–635.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1] Hinchliffe, P., and L.A. Sazanov. Organization of iron-sulfur clusters in respiratory complex I, Science. 309 (2005) 771–774.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1] Ferguson, N.M., C.A. Donnelly, and R.M. Anderson. Transmission intensity and impact of control policies on the foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain, Nature. 413 (2001) 542–548.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
[1] Xiao, F., Q. Zong, Z. Su, C. Yang, Z. He, Y. Wang, and Z. Gao. Determining the mechanism of cusp proton aurora, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1654.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1] Tyson, H. Microsoft® Word 2010 Bible. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
[1] Pearce, C., and E. Hunt (Eds). Optimization: Structure and Applications. 1st ed. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
[1] Douglass, J.A. Considering National Context and Other Variables, In: The New Flagship University: Changing the Paradigm from Global Ranking to National Relevancy, (Eds: Douglass, J.A.), New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US: pp. 103–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Serdica Journal of Computing.

Blog post
[1] Hale, T. Kid Working On WW2 Homework Finds Nazi Plane With Pilot’s Skeleton Inside, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1] Government Accountability Office. Space Funding: NASA’s Appropriations and DOD’s Funding Estimates for Space Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1] Torres, A. An understanding of the first-generation community college student: A strengths and assets approach, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1] Williams, J. Zinzi Clemmons, New York Times. (2017) C18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3, 4].
This sentence cites four references [4, 5, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleSerdica Journal of Computing
ISSN (print)1312-6555
ISSN (online)1314-7897

Other styles