How to format your references using the Serdica Journal of Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Serdica Journal of Computing (SJC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1] Hoag, H. Tougher rules aim to prevent gene flow into crops, Nature. 422 (2003) 103.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1] Turner, S.L., and A. Ray. Modification of CO2 avoidance behaviour in Drosophila by inhibitory odorants, Nature. 461 (2009) 277–281.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1] Springel, V., C.S. Frenk, and S.D.M. White. The large-scale structure of the Universe, Nature. 440 (2006) 1137–1144.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
[1] Steinmetz, L.M., H. Sinha, D.R. Richards, J.I. Spiegelman, P.J. Oefner, J.H. McCusker, and R.W. Davis. Dissecting the architecture of a quantitative trait locus in yeast, Nature. 416 (2002) 326–330.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1] Teodorescu, P.P., W.W. Kecs, and A. Toma. Distribution Theory. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
[1] Capasso, V. An Introduction to Continuous-Time Stochastic Processes: Theory, Models, and Applications to Finance, Biology, and Medicine. 3rd ed. 2015. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
[1] Enficiaud, R. Queue and Priority Queue Based Algorithms for Computing the Quasi-distance Transform, In: Image Analysis and Recognition: 7th International Conference, ICIAR 2010, Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal, June 21-23, 2010. Proceedings, Part I, (Eds: Campilho, A., and M. Kamel), Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer: pp. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Serdica Journal of Computing.

Blog post
[1] Andrew, D. What The Hell Are These??, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1] Government Accountability Office. Potential for Cost Reduction in Providing Message Refile Services Through DOD Telecommunications Centers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1] Donihoo, K. Best Practices and Strategies Used by Church Leaders to Mitigate and Prevent Burnout Among Church Volunteers, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1] Chumsky, S. Two Legacies, Now Home to Roost, New York Times. (2013) E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 6, 7, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleSerdica Journal of Computing
ISSN (print)1312-6555
ISSN (online)1314-7897

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