How to format your references using the Research on Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research on Biomedical Engineering (RBE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pierrehumbert RT. High levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide necessary for the termination of global glaciation. Nature. 2004;429:646–9. PMid:15190348. .
A journal article with 2 authors
Curry Rogers K, Forster CA. The last of the dinosaur titans: a new sauropod from Madagascar. Nature. 2001;412:530–4. PMid:11484051. .
A journal article with 3 authors
Foran E, Weiner S, Fine M. Biogenic fish-gut calcium carbonate is a stable amorphous phase in the gilt-head seabream, Sparus aurata. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1700. PMid:23609008. .
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li H, Wang J, Mor G, Sklar J. A neoplastic gene fusion mimics trans-splicing of RNAs in normal human cells. Science. 2008;321:1357–61. PMid:18772439. .

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’Homme R. Flows and Chemical Reactions in Heterogeneous Mixtures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Mjølsnes SF, Mauw S, Katsikas SK, editors. Public Key Infrastructure: 5th European PKI Workshop: Theory and Practice, EuroPKI 2008 Trondheim, Norway, June 16-17, 2008 Proceedings. vol. 5057. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Cheng D, Qi H, Li Z. Logical Equations. In: Qi H, Li Z, editors. Analysis and Control of Boolean Networks: A Semi-tensor Product Approach, London: Springer; 2011, p. 67–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research on Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. Brightest Pulsar Ever Discovered Is 10 Million Times More Luminous Than Our Sun. IFLScience. 2014. [cited 2018 October 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Use of Program Income by Evaluation, Dissemination, and Assessment Centers Supported by OBEMLA. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conti AI. Dirty hands, virtue ethics, and consequentialism. [Doctoral dissertation]. 2012. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. A Showrunner’s Geek Heaven. New York Times. 2016:D11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chandler, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gosden, 2010; Yuan, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Curry Rogers and Forster, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Organ et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch on Biomedical Engineering
ISSN (print)2446-4732
ISSN (online)2446-4740

Other styles