How to format your references using the Research on Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research on Biomedical Engineering (RBE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chamberlin RV. Mean-field cluster model for the critical behaviour of ferromagnets. Nature. 2000;408:337–9. PMid:11099035. .
A journal article with 2 authors
Yandulov DV, Schrock RR. Catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia at a single molybdenum center. Science. 2003;301:76–8. PMid:12843387. .
A journal article with 3 authors
Alfe D, Gillan MJ, Price GD. Constraints on the composition of the Earth’s core from ab initio calculations. Nature. 2000;405:172–5. PMid:10821270. .
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Soden BJ, Wetherald RT, Stenchikov GL, Robock A. Global cooling after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: a test of climate feedback by water vapor. Science. 2002;296:727–30. PMid:11976452. .

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Florczyk S. Robot Vision. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2004.
An edited book
Gallucci M. Radiographic Atlas of Skull and Brain Anatomy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Hardin CS, Taylor AD. The Denumerable Setting: One-Way Visibility. In: Taylor AD, editor. The Mathematics of Coordinated Inference: A Study of Generalized Hat Problems, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013, p. 29–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research on Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Help Find Planet Nine And You Could Name It (But You Can’t Pick Planet McPlanetface). IFLScience. 2017. [cited 2018 October 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The NASA Fiscal Year 1985 Budget Requests That Support DOD Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lakin BK. Reading First program effects on students with disabilities. [Doctoral dissertation]. 2009. St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Haberman M. An Overseas Trip Comes at a Crucial Time, but Trump Is a Reluctant Traveler. New York Times. 2017:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chamberlin, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Chamberlin, 2000; Yandulov and Schrock, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yandulov and Schrock, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Soden et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch on Biomedical Engineering
ISSN (print)2446-4732
ISSN (online)2446-4740

Other styles