How to format your references using the Research on Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research on Biomedical Engineering (RBE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
deMenocal PB. Anthropology. Climate and human evolution. Science. 2011;331:540–2. PMid:21292958. .
A journal article with 2 authors
Arimoto T, Sato Y. Science and society. Rebuilding public trust in science for policy-making. Science. 2012;337:1176–7. PMid:22955820. .
A journal article with 3 authors
Engler HS, Spencer KC, Gilbert LE. Preventing cyanide release from leaves. Nature. 2000;406:144–5. PMid:10910343. .
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nelson LJ, Treskes P, Howie AF, Walker SW, Hayes PC, Plevris JN. Profiling the impact of medium formulation on morphology and functionality of primary hepatocytes in vitro. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2735. PMid:24061220. .

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McBee J. Mastering Microsoft® Exchange Server 2007 SP1. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Lakshmibai V. The Grassmannian Variety: Geometric and Representation-Theoretic Aspects. vol. 42. 1st ed. 2015. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Wiers-Jenssen J. Career Impacts of Student Mobility. In: Gornitzka Å, Langfeldt L, editors. Borderless Knowledge: Understanding the “New” Internationalisation of Research and Higher Education in Norway, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008, p. 79–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research on Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. NASA’s Comet Hitchhiker Could Explore The Solar System With A Harpoon And Tether. IFLScience. 2015. [cited 2018 October 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Emergency Management: Status of School Districts’ Planning and Preparedness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khaleghi FK. Evaluating Satisfaction of Participants within the Outreach and Engagement Program of MECCA. [Doctoral dissertation]. 2017. Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Honoring Neighbors Killed in Attacks. New York Times. 2007:14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (deMenocal, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Arimoto and Sato, 2012; deMenocal, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arimoto and Sato, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Nelson et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch on Biomedical Engineering
ISSN (print)2446-4732
ISSN (online)2446-4740

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