How to format your references using the Strategic Organization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Strategic Organization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oppenheim J (2006) Physics. Implementing a quantum computation by free falling. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311(5764): 1106–1107.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zimmerberg J and Chernomordik LV (2005) Neuroscience. Synaptic membranes bend to the will of a neurotoxin. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310(5754): 1626–1627.
A journal article with 3 authors
Silva-Santos B, Pennington DJ and Hayday AC (2005) Lymphotoxin-mediated regulation of gammadelta cell differentiation by alphabeta T cell progenitors. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307(5711): 925–928.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fu Q, Li W-X, Yao Y, et al. (2010) Interface-confined ferrous centers for catalytic oxidation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328(5982): 1141–1144.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rieth M (2012) Pharmazeutische Mikrobiologie. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Jue JK (ed.) (2006) Heaven upon Earth. INTERNATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE HISTORY OF IDEAS. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Morgado A, del Río R and de la Rosa JM (2012) A 130-nm CMOS Reconfigurable 2-1-1 Cascade SC ΣΔM for GSM/BT/UMTS. In: del Río R and Rosa JM de la (eds) Nanometer CMOS Sigma-Delta Modulators for Software Defined Radio. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 111–150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Strategic Organization.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Magnetic Cues Help Sea Turtles Find Their Home Beach. IFLScience. Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Information Technology: Management Improvements Are Essential to VA’s Second Effort to Replace Its Outpatient Scheduling System. GAO-10-579, 27 May. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lauterbach JR (2017) Golf in the Collective: Playing in Liminal Space. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Witz B (2017) A Button-Down Game Gets a Needed Pinch of Pizazz. New York Times, 15 March.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Oppenheim, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Oppenheim, 2006; Zimmerberg and Chernomordik, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zimmerberg and Chernomordik, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Fu et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleStrategic Organization
AbbreviationStrateg. Organ.
ISSN (print)1476-1270
ISSN (online)1741-315X
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Strategy and Management
Industrial relations

Other styles