How to format your references using the Journal of Natural History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Natural History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pardoll DM. 2001. Immunology. Stress, NK receptors, and immune surveillance. Science. 294:534–536.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller AI, Foote M. 2003. Increased longevities of post-Paleozoic marine genera after mass extinctions. Science. 302:1030–1032.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weisz C, Glowatzki E, Fuchs P. 2009. The postsynaptic function of type II cochlear afferents. Nature. 461:1126–1129.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Asner GP, Knapp DE, Broadbent EN, Oliveira PJC, Keller M, Silva JN. 2005. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon. Science. 310:480–482.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dubil R. 2011. Financial Engineering and Arbitrage in the Financial Markets. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sasaki K, Suzuki O, Takahashi N, editors. 2015. Interface Oral Health Science 2014: Innovative Research on Biosis-Abiosis Intelligent Interface. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Okaie Y, Nakano T, Hara T, Nishio S. 2016. Conclusion. In: Nakano T, Hara T, Nishio S, editors. Target Detection and Tracking by Bionanosensor Networks. Singapore: Springer; p. 59–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Natural History.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Mind-Controlling Wasps Enslave Zombie Spiders To Build Them A Perfect Nest. IFLScience [Internet]. [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Federal Agency Roles and Responsibilities for Emergency Communications Need Clarification. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blasdel ES. 2010. A phenomenological study of barriers for women in federal law enforcement [Doctoral dissertation]. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harney J. 2016. A Hack for Dissidents: Cover the Phone’s Lens. New York Times.:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pardoll 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Pardoll 2001; Miller and Foote 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miller and Foote 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Asner et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Natural History
AbbreviationJ. Nat. Hist.
ISSN (print)0022-2933
ISSN (online)1464-5262
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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