How to format your references using the Journal of Music Technology and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Music Technology and Education (JMTE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yamanouchi, K. (2002), 'The next frontier', Science (New York, N.Y.), 295:5560, pp. 1659–1660.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levine, B. and Elazar, Z. (2011), 'Development. Inheriting maternal mtDNA', Science (New York, N.Y.), 334:6059, pp. 1069–1070.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hwang, T. J., Carpenter, D. and Kesselheim, A. S. (2014), 'Target small firms for antibiotic innovation', Science (New York, N.Y.), 344:6187, pp. 967–969.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Romano, F., Trasatti, E., Lorito, S., Piromallo, C., Piatanesi, A., Ito, Y., … Cocco, M. (2014), 'Structural control on the Tohoku earthquake rupture process investigated by 3D FEM, tsunami and geodetic data', Scientific Reports, 4, pp. 5631.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Overhauser, A. (2010), Anomalous Effects in Simple Metals, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wiesel, S. W. and Delahay, J. N. (Eds.) (2011), Essentials of Orthopedic Surgery, 4th ed., New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Scheider, S., Janowicz, K. and Kuhn, W. (2009), 'Grounding Geographic Categories in the Meaningful Environment', in K. S. Hornsby, , C. Claramunt, , M. Denis, , and G. Ligozat, (Eds.), Spatial Information Theory: 9th International Conference, COSIT 2009 Aber Wrac’h, France, September 21-25, 2009 Proceedings, pp. 69–87, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Music Technology and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 16), 'Methane Found in Martian Meteorites',
retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991), Space Data: NASA’s Future Data Volumes Create Formidable Challenges, No. IMTEC-91-24, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haug, J. J. (2010), A summer literacy intervention for struggling readers at the middle school level using strategies in comprehension, fluency, vocabulary, and positive school climate to improve reading comprehension: An evaluation study, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2007, April 29), 'The Right Look Gives A Home a Second Act', New York Times, p. WE6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yamanouchi 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Levine and Elazar 2011; Yamanouchi 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levine and Elazar 2011)
  • Three authors: (Hwang, Carpenter, and Kesselheim 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Romano et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Music Technology and Education
AbbreviationJ. Music Technol. Educ.
ISSN (print)1752-7066
ISSN (online)1752-7074
Computer Science Applications

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