How to format your references using the Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, Alison. 2007. “How to Make It in Moscow.” Nature 448 (7157): 983.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhong, Weiwei, and Paul W. Sternberg. 2006. “Genome-Wide Prediction of C. Elegans Genetic Interactions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5766): 1481–1484.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zylka, Mark J., Ben D. Philpot, and Ian F. King. 2014. “Zylka et Al. Reply.” Nature 512 (7512): E2.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dawson, Mark A., Rab K. Prinjha, Antje Dittmann, George Giotopoulos, Marcus Bantscheff, Wai-In Chan, Samuel C. Robson, et al. 2011. “Inhibition of BET Recruitment to Chromatin as an Effective Treatment for MLL-Fusion Leukaemia.” Nature 478 (7370): 529–533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mitola, Joseph, III. 2002. Software Radio Architecture. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hanson, William S., and Ioana A. Oltean, eds. 2013. Archaeology from Historical Aerial and Satellite Archives. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Weber-Jahnke, Jens H. 2008. “Modelling of Longitudinal Information Systems with Graph Grammars.” In Applications of Graph Transformations with Industrial Relevance: Third International Symposium, AGTIVE 2007, Kassel, Germany, October 10-12, 2007, Revised Selected and Invited Papers, edited by Andy Schürr, Manfred Nagl, and Albert Zündorf, 59–65. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “New Study Finds Marijuana Safer Than Alcohol Or Tobacco.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. Immigration Benefits System: Significant Risks in USCIS’s Efforts to Develop Its Adjudication and Case Management System. GAO-17-486T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoefer, Peter D. 2010. “A David against Goliath: The American Veterans Committee’s Challenge to the American Legion in the 1950s.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, David. 1994. “Sex and Drugs and Mick and Keith.” New York Times, October 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kauer 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Reed 2011; Johnson 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhong and Sternberg 2006)
  • Three authors: (Zylka, Philpot, and King 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hooper et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development
AbbreviationJ. Multiling. Multicult. Dev.
ISSN (print)0143-4632
ISSN (online)1747-7557
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

Other styles