How to format your references using the Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bernhardt, Emily S. 2013. “Ecology. Cleaner Lakes Are Dirtier Lakes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 342 (6155): 205–206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhoj, Vijay G., and Zhijian J. Chen. 2009. “Ubiquitylation in Innate and Adaptive Immunity.” Nature 458 (7237): 430–437.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joachim, C., J. K. Gimzewski, and A. Aviram. 2000. “Electronics Using Hybrid-Molecular and Mono-Molecular Devices.” Nature 408 (6812): 541–548.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Neutel, Anje-Margriet, Johan A. P. Heesterbeek, Johan van de Koppel, Guido Hoenderboom, An Vos, Coen Kaldeway, Frank Berendse, and Peter C. de Ruiter. 2007. “Reconciling Complexity with Stability in Naturally Assembling Food Webs.” Nature 449 (7162): 599–602.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Souza de Cursi, Eduardo. 2015. Variational Methods for Engineers with Matlab®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Allen, Matt, Randy Mayes, and Daniel Rixen, eds. 2014. Dynamics of Coupled Structures, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Armoni, Michal, Tamar Benaya, David Ginat, and Ela Zur. 2010. “Didactics of Introduction to Computer Science in High School.” In Teaching Fundamentals Concepts of Informatics: 4th International Conference on Informatics in Secondary Schools - Evolution and Perspectives, ISSEP 2010, Zurich, Switzerland, January 13-15, 2010. Proceedings, edited by Juraj Hromkovič, Richard Královič, and Jan Vahrenhold, 36–48. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “Some Of The Obscure Diseases ‘Rare Disease Day’ Wants You To Know About.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Attack Warning: Status of the Survivable Communications Integration System. IMTEC-92-61BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Catt, Brenda S. 2010. “The Reduction of Surgical Errors through a Development of Safety Culture, Teamwork, and Communication.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, Peter. 2017. “Forces He Could Not Control.” New York Times, September 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bernhardt 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Bernhardt 2013; Bhoj and Chen 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bhoj and Chen 2009)
  • Three authors: (Joachim, Gimzewski, and Aviram 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Neutel et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development
AbbreviationJ. Multiling. Multicult. Dev.
ISSN (print)0143-4632
ISSN (online)1747-7557
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

Other styles