How to format your references using the Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Quirin. 2008. “Westernizing Eastern-Bloc Science.” Nature 453 (7194): 558–559.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peters, Shanan E., and Michael Foote. 2002. “Determinants of Extinction in the Fossil Record.” Nature 416 (6879): 420–424.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moray, C., E. T. Game, and N. Maxted. 2014. “Prioritising in Situ Conservation of Crop Resources: A Case Study of African Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata).” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5247.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Müller, Laura S. M., Raúl O. Cosentino, Konrad U. Förstner, Julien Guizetti, Carolin Wedel, Noam Kaplan, Christian J. Janzen, et al. 2018. “Genome Organization and DNA Accessibility Control Antigenic Variation in Trypanosomes.” Nature 563 (7729): 121–125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burwick, Frederick. 2015. Romanticism. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Coffey, Julia, Shelley Budgeon, and Helen Cahill, eds. 2016. Learning Bodies: The Body in Youth and Childhood Studies. Vol. 2. Perspectives on Children and Young People. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dolk, Daniel. 2010. “Structured Modeling and Model Management.” In A Long View of Research and Practice in Operations Research and Management Science: The Past and the Future, edited by Manmohan S. Sodhi and Christopher S. Tang, 63–88. International Series in Operations Research & Management Science. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Nearly 700 Million Cases Of Malaria Have Been Prevented Since 2000.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. The Johnstown Area Flood of 1977: A Case Study for the Future. CED-78-114. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zatolokin, Alexander. 2015. “Stylistic Approaches for Oboists in the Operatic Works of J. Hasse.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis, George. 2012. “Franz Schreker’s Triumphant Return.” New York Times, September 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier 2008; Peters and Foote 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peters and Foote 2002)
  • Three authors: (Moray, Game, and Maxted 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Müller et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development
AbbreviationJ. Multiling. Multicult. Dev.
ISSN (print)0143-4632
ISSN (online)1747-7557
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

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