How to format your references using the Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fischer, Reinhard. 2008. “Developmental Biology. Sex and Poison in the Dark.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5882): 1430–1431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morrison, Sean J., and David T. Scadden. 2014. “The Bone Marrow Niche for Haematopoietic Stem Cells.” Nature 505 (7483): 327–334.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown, T., W. Sibbett, and E. M. Wright. 2001. “Laser Physics. Getting to Grips with Light.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5533): 1265–1267.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Oulton, Rupert F., Volker J. Sorger, Thomas Zentgraf, Ren-Min Ma, Christopher Gladden, Lun Dai, Guy Bartal, and Xiang Zhang. 2009. “Plasmon Lasers at Deep Subwavelength Scale.” Nature 461 (7264): 629–632.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan. 2016. Health, Safety, and Environmental Management in Offshore and Petroleum Engineering. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Liu, Xiao. 2012. The Design of Cloud Workflow Systems. Edited by Dong Yuan, Gaofeng Zhang, Wenhao Li, Dahai Cao, Qiang He, Jinjun Chen, and Yun Yang. SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rauchecker, Gerhard, Emrah Yasasin, and Guido Schryen. 2014. “A Decision Support System for IT Security Incident Management.” In Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business: 11th International Conference, TrustBus 2014, Munich, Germany, September 2-3, 2014. Proceedings, edited by Claudia Eckert, Sokratis K. Katsikas, and Günther Pernul, 36–47. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. “Full 28-Day Menstrual Cycle Replicated In A Dish For The First Time.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Airport Improvement Program: Opportunity to Consider FAA’s Role in Meeting Airport System Needs. T-RCED-93-43. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kirk, Candice. 2017. “Early Maladaptive Attachment Styles and Psychological Aggression in Romantic Relationships: A Content Analysis, 2006-2016.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2014. “An Alternative to New York Hotels, If Not Welcome by All.” New York Times, October 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fischer 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Fischer 2008; Morrison and Scadden 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morrison and Scadden 2014)
  • Three authors: (Brown, Sibbett, and Wright 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Oulton et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development
AbbreviationJ. Multiling. Multicult. Dev.
ISSN (print)0143-4632
ISSN (online)1747-7557
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

Other styles