How to format your references using the Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cash, Webster. 2006. “Detection of Earth-like Planets around Nearby Stars Using a Petal-Shaped Occulter.” Nature 442 (7098): 51–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
Retchless, Adam C., and Jeffrey G. Lawrence. 2007. “Temporal Fragmentation of Speciation in Bacteria.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5841): 1093–1096.
A journal article with 3 authors
Philips, Jennifer A., Eric J. Rubin, and Norbert Perrimon. 2005. “Drosophila RNAi Screen Reveals CD36 Family Member Required for Mycobacterial Infection.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5738): 1251–1253.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pachepsky, E., J. W. Crawford, J. L. Bown, and G. Squire. 2001. “Towards a General Theory of Biodiversity.” Nature 410 (6831): 923–926.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexander, Michael, and John Walkenbach. 2010. Excel® Dashboards & Reports. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Van den Broeck, Jan, and Jonathan R. Brestoff, eds. 2013. Epidemiology: Principles and Practical Guidelines. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Juan-Albarracín, Javier, Elies Fuster-Garcia, and Juan M. García-Gómez. 2016. “An Online Platform for the Automatic Reporting of Multi-Parametric Tissue Signatures: A Case Study in Glioblastoma.” In Brainlesion: Glioma, Multiple Sclerosis, Stroke and Traumatic Brain Injuries: Second International Workshop, BrainLes 2016, with the Challenges on BRATS, ISLES and MTOP 2016, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2016, Athens, Greece, October 17, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Alessandro Crimi, Bjoern Menze, Oskar Maier, Mauricio Reyes, Stefan Winzeck, and Heinz Handels, 43–51. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “We Found Only One-Third Of Published Psychology Research Is Reliable – Now What?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. The President’s Decision to Order a Chinese Company’s Divestiture of a Recently Acquired U.S. Aircraft Parts Manufacturer. T-NSIAD-90-21. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayorga, Juan. 2009. “MSW Students’ Perception of Mental Health Competence.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sengupta, Somini, and Ben Hubbard. 2017. “Truce That Trump Announced at G-20 Survives Its First Day in Southwestern Syria.” New York Times, July 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cash 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Cash 2006; Retchless and Lawrence 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Retchless and Lawrence 2007)
  • Three authors: (Philips, Rubin, and Perrimon 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Pachepsky et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development
AbbreviationJ. Multiling. Multicult. Dev.
ISSN (print)0143-4632
ISSN (online)1747-7557
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

Other styles