How to format your references using the Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, Michael. 2010. “Diversity: Of Beans and Genes.” Nature 468 (7327): S13-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Iwahara, Junji, and G. Marius Clore. 2006. “Detecting Transient Intermediates in Macromolecular Binding by Paramagnetic NMR.” Nature 440 (7088): 1227–1230.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, Liqiang, Anne Treisman, and Harold Pashler. 2007. “Characterizing the Limits of Human Visual Awareness.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5839): 823–825.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jiang, L., J. K. Li, P. M. Cheng, G. Liu, R. H. Wang, B. A. Chen, J. Y. Zhang, J. Sun, M. X. Yang, and G. Yang. 2014. “Microalloying Ultrafine Grained Al Alloys with Enhanced Ductility.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3605.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dormieux, Luc, and Djimédo Kondo. 2016. Micromechanics of Fracture and Damage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Marks, Jeffrey M., and Brian J. Dunkin, eds. 2013. Principles of Flexible Endoscopy for Surgeons. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Higuchi, Yohei, and Tamotsu Hisamatsu. 2016. “Light Acts as a Signal for Regulation of Growth and Development.” In LED Lighting for Urban Agriculture, edited by Toyoki Kozai, Kazuhiro Fujiwara, and Erik S. Runkle, 57–73. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “Hacked By Your Fridge: The Internet Of Things Could Spark A New Wave Of Cyber Attacks.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. High Definition Television: The Effects of Standards on U.S. Entertainment Industries. IMTEC-90-33. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ayhan, Murat Seckin. 2015. “A Probabilistic Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kepner, Tyler. 2017. “A Racist Gesture Results in a Delayed Punishment.” New York Times, October 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein 2010; Iwahara and Clore 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Iwahara and Clore 2006)
  • Three authors: (Huang, Treisman, and Pashler 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development
AbbreviationJ. Multiling. Multicult. Dev.
ISSN (print)0143-4632
ISSN (online)1747-7557
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

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