How to format your references using the Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Orbach, Raymond L. 2011. “Retrospective. John Harmen Marburger III (1941-2011).” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6047): 1233.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krishnan, Vaishnav, and Eric J. Nestler. 2008. “The Molecular Neurobiology of Depression.” Nature 455 (7215): 894–902.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fumagalli, Michele, John M. O’Meara, and J. Xavier Prochaska. 2011. “Detection of Pristine Gas Two Billion Years after the Big Bang.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6060): 1245–1249.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
La Spina, A., P. Paolicchi, A. Kryszczyńska, and P. Pravec. 2004. “Retrograde Spins of Near-Earth Asteroids from the Yarkovsky Effect.” Nature 428 (6981): 400–401.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleckenstein, Peter, Jørgen Tranum-Jensen, and Peter Sand Myschetzky. 2014. Anatomy in Diagnostic Imaging. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Marin, Jean-Michel. 2014. Bayesian Essentials with R. Edited by Christian P. Robert. 2nd ed. 2014. Springer Texts in Statistics. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fast, Michael, and Woodrow W. Clark. 2013. “Qualitative Economics: The Science Needed in Economics.” In The Next Economics: Global Cases in Energy, Environment, and Climate Change, edited by Woodrow W. Clark II, 71–91. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Six Incredible Scientists Who Had To Flee Their Homelands As Refugees.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Health Information Systems: National Practitioner Data Bank Continues to Experience Problems. IMTEC-93-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goodwell, Laura Y. 2017. “Do Athletic Trainers Have a Positive Impact on High School Athletes’ Knowledge of Injury Prevention and Training Habits?” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2013. “Kuwaiti Sheik’s Influence in Olympic World Grows.” New York Times, September 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Orbach 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Orbach 2011; Krishnan and Nestler 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krishnan and Nestler 2008)
  • Three authors: (Fumagalli, O’Meara, and Prochaska 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (La Spina et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development
AbbreviationJ. Multiling. Multicult. Dev.
ISSN (print)0143-4632
ISSN (online)1747-7557
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

Other styles