How to format your references using the Journal of Molecular Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Molecular Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leigh GJ (2003) Chemistry. So that’s how it’s done--maybe. Science 301:55–56
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruskov R, Tahan C (2014) Quantum Processing. Catching the quantum sound wave. Science 346:165–166
A journal article with 3 authors
Burrone J, O’Byrne M, Murthy VN (2002) Multiple forms of synaptic plasticity triggered by selective suppression of activity in individual neurons. Nature 420:414–418
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Marko PB, Lee SC, Rice AM, et al (2004) Fisheries: mislabelling of a depleted reef fish. Nature 430:309–310

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith MB (2014) Compendium of Organic Synthetic Methods: Smith/Compendium. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Fütterer DK, Damaske D, Kleinschmidt G, et al (eds) (2006) Antarctica: Contributions to Global Earth Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Razavi SH, Ebadati EOM, Asadi S, Kaur H (2015) An Efficient Grouping Genetic Algorithm for Data Clustering and Big Data Analysis. In: Acharjya DP, Dehuri S, Sanyal S (eds) Computational Intelligence for Big Data Analysis: Frontier Advances and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 119–142

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Molecular Evolution.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Baby Macaques Smile In Their Sleep, Just Like Humans. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) U.S. Merchant Marine Academy: Additional Actions Needed to Establish Effective Internal Control. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hinckley M (2014) Socioecological factors that affect adolescent nervousness and depression. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J (2017) Headaches Await a New E.U. Leader. New York Times A9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leigh 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Leigh 2003; Ruskov and Tahan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ruskov and Tahan 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Marko et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Molecular Evolution
AbbreviationJ. Mol. Evol.
ISSN (print)0022-2844
ISSN (online)1432-1432
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology

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