How to format your references using the Journal of Molecular Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Molecular Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowerman B (2008) Cell signaling. Wnt moves beyond the canon. Science 320:327–328
A journal article with 2 authors
Phillips P, Balatsky AV (2007) Physics. Cracking the supersolid. Science 316:1435–1436
A journal article with 3 authors
Yue H, Lay T, Koper KD (2012) En échelon and orthogonal fault ruptures of the 11 April 2012 great intraplate earthquakes. Nature 490:245–249
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kloppenborg B, Stencel R, Monnier JD, et al (2010) Infrared images of the transiting disk in the epsilon Aurigae system. Nature 464:870–872

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stocker AA (2006) Analog VLSI Circuits for the Perception of Visual Motion. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Triantaphyllou E, Felici G (eds) (2006) Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Approaches Based on Rule Induction Techniques. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Jha KR, Singh G (2014) Ring Resonator-Integrated Hemi-elliptical Lens Antenna. In: Singh G (ed) Terahertz Planar Antennas for Next Generation Communication. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 83–105

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Molecular Evolution.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Researchers find Physical Differences in Empathetic Peoples’ Brains. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Small Business Innovation Research: SBA Should Work with Agencies to Improve the Data Available for Program Evaluation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De la Pena Wing T (2010) Remembering Malintzin’s dream: A bridge between two cultures through language and love. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J (2016) A Grievous Homecoming (It’s O.K. to Laugh). New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowerman 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Phillips and Balatsky 2007; Bowerman 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Phillips and Balatsky 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Kloppenborg et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Molecular Evolution
AbbreviationJ. Mol. Evol.
ISSN (print)0022-2844
ISSN (online)1432-1432
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology

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