How to format your references using the Journal of Molecular Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Molecular Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Racaniello V (2011) Virology. An exit strategy for measles virus. Science 334:1650–1651
A journal article with 2 authors
Rickman C, Bickmore WA (2013) Transcription. Flashing a light on the spatial organization of transcription. Science 341:621–622
A journal article with 3 authors
Harvey JA, Corley LS, Strand MR (2000) Competition induces adaptive shifts in caste ratios of a polyembryonic wasp. Nature 406:183–186
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dellis O, Dedos SG, Tovey SC, et al (2006) Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane IP3 receptors. Science 313:229–233

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Birla R (2014) Introduction to Tissue Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Quay J, Seaman J (eds) (2013) John Dewey and Education Outdoors: Making Sense of the ‘Educational Situation’ through more than a Century of Progressive Reforms. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Adl-Tabatabai A-R, Kozyrakis C, Saha B (2009) Optimizing Memory Transactions for Multicore Systems. In: Keckler SW, Olukotun K, Hofstee HP (eds) Multicore Processors and Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 145–172

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Molecular Evolution.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Bizarre Plant Resembles Human Finger. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) FBI: Advanced Communications Technologies Pose Wiretapping Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gifford SC (2013) (Re)making men, representing the Caribbean nation: Authorial individuation in works by Fred D’aguiar, Robert Antoni, and Marlon James. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2004) Russian Who Killed Chechen May Get a Pardon. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Racaniello 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Racaniello 2011; Rickman and Bickmore 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rickman and Bickmore 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Dellis et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Molecular Evolution
AbbreviationJ. Mol. Evol.
ISSN (print)0022-2844
ISSN (online)1432-1432
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology

Other styles