How to format your references using the Journal of Economic Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Economic Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D (2011) Science agencies must bite innovation bullet. Nature 471:137
A journal article with 2 authors
Field CB, Barros VR (2015) CLIMATE CHANGE. Added value from IPCC approval sessions. Science 350:36
A journal article with 3 authors
Blake RE, Chang SJ, Lepland A (2010) Phosphate oxygen isotopic evidence for a temperate and biologically active Archaean ocean. Nature 464:1029–1032
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gibbs SJ, Bown PR, Sessa JA, et al (2006) Nannoplankton extinction and origination across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Science 314:1770–1773

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glasgow LA (2014) Applied Mathematics for Science and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lee R, Ormandjieva O, Abran A, Constantinides C (eds) (2010) Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications 2010. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Melo JSS, Brasil LM, Balaniuk R, et al (2009) Intelligent Tutoring Systems Based on Ontologies and 3D Visualization Platforms in the Teaching of the Human Anatomy. In: Dössel O, Schlegel WC (eds) World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/12 General Subjects. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 16–19

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Economic Structures.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Astronomers Observe Traces Of A Galactic Dance. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Department of Education: Information Needs Are at the Core of Management Challenges Facing the Department. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malherek MN (2016) The Prevalence and Predictors of Parental Corporal Punishment in the United States. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2015) Coates to Write for Marvel. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Sarewitz 2011; Field and Barros 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Field and Barros 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Gibbs et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Economic Structures
AbbreviationJ. Econ. Struct.
ISSN (online)2193-2409

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