How to format your references using the Journal of Economic Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Economic Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ottino JM (2003) Is a picture worth 1,000 words? Nature 421:474–476
A journal article with 2 authors
Cook-Andersen H, Wilkinson MF (2015) Molecular biology: Splicing does the two-step. Nature 521:300–301
A journal article with 3 authors
Stratton MR, Campbell PJ, Futreal PA (2009) The cancer genome. Nature 458:719–724
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pérez Y, Maffei M, Igea A, et al (2013) Lipid binding by the Unique and SH3 domains of c-Src suggests a new regulatory mechanism. Sci Rep 3:1295

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gardi F, Benoist T, Darlay J, et al (2014) Mathematical Programming Solver Based on Local Search. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Alvarez-Gaumé L, Mangano M, Tsesmelis E (eds) (2012) From the PS to the LHC - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Encheva S, Tumin S (2009) Effectiveness of Business Alliances Partnerships. In: Damiani E, Jeong J, Howlett RJ, Jain LC (eds) New Directions in Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services - 2. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 43–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Economic Structures.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Humanity’s Actions Have Given Rise To 208 New Mineral Types. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Space Acquisitions: DOD Poised to Enhance Space Capabilities, but Persistent Challenges Remain in Developing Space Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKinney RW (2017) The Optimal Balance of Liberal Education and Career Readiness in the Context of the American Promise: A Critical Analysis of the American Association of Colleges and Universities Liberal Education and America’s Promise Challenge. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2017) On Adele’s Big Night, She Lauds Beyoncé. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ottino 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ottino 2003; Cook-Andersen and Wilkinson 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cook-Andersen and Wilkinson 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Pérez et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Economic Structures
AbbreviationJ. Econ. Struct.
ISSN (online)2193-2409

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