How to format your references using the Journal of Economic Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Economic Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chaddah P (2014) Not all plagiarism requires a retraction. Nature 511:127
A journal article with 2 authors
Alonso JM, Stepanova AN (2004) The ethylene signaling pathway. Science 306:1513–1515
A journal article with 3 authors
Jin F-F, Boucharel J, Lin I-I (2014) Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones intensified by El Niño delivery of subsurface ocean heat. Nature 516:82–85
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Galburt EA, Grill SW, Wiedmann A, et al (2007) Backtracking determines the force sensitivity of RNAP II in a factor-dependent manner. Nature 446:820–823

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Troppens U, Erkens R, Müller W (2004) Storage Networks Explained. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Ferrari M, Vuletic L (eds) (2010) The Developmental Relations among Mind, Brain and Education: Essays in Honor of Robbie Case. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Quentel-Touche C (2011) Charles V’s Visual Definition of the Queen’s Virtues. In: Green K, Mews C (eds) Virtue Ethics for Women 1250-1500. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 53–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Economic Structures.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) What Would It Take To End California’s Drought? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974) Basis for Approval of Federal Impact Aid Funds for Adelanto School District, California. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lucas WA (2017) Dynamics of Food Consumption in a Q’eqchi’ Maya Community. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J (2017) Academy Eases the Angst of Adolescent Refugees. New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chaddah 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Alonso and Stepanova 2004; Chaddah 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Alonso and Stepanova 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Galburt et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Economic Structures
AbbreviationJ. Econ. Struct.
ISSN (online)2193-2409

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