How to format your references using the Journal of Economic Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Economic Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles J (2004) Nanotech takes small step towards burying “grey goo.” Nature 429:591
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor JRA, Kier WM (2006) Biomechanics: a pneumo-hydrostatic skeleton in land crabs. Nature 440:1005
A journal article with 3 authors
Almeda R, Connelly TL, Buskey EJ (2014) Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea. Sci Rep 4:7560
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schneider H, Schuettpelz E, Pryer KM, et al (2004) Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. Nature 428:553–557

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell D (2014) The JCT Standard Building Contract 2011. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford
An edited book
Kaslow RA, Stanberry LR, Le Duc JW (eds) (2014) Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, 5th ed. 2014. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Xia Y, Fu M (2013) SMC for Missile Systems Based on Back-Stepping and ESO Techniques. In: Fu M (ed) Compound Control Methodology for Flight Vehicles. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 65–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Economic Structures.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Develop Way Watch HIV Spreading Through The Body In Real Time. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Opportunities To Fully Integrate Environmental Research and Development into Developing Energy Technologies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joshi RA (2010) Adaptive nulling in multiple beam antennas using quantized state adaptive algorithms. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J (2017) Long After the Departure, One More Cosmic Joke to Tell. New York Times C14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Giles 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Giles 2004; Taylor and Kier 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taylor and Kier 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Schneider et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Economic Structures
AbbreviationJ. Econ. Struct.
ISSN (online)2193-2409

Other styles