How to format your references using the Journal of Economic Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Economic Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Isselbacher KJ (2009) Retrospective. Paul C. Zamecnik (1912-2009). Science 326:1359
A journal article with 2 authors
Rakoff-Nahoum S, Medzhitov R (2007) Regulation of spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis through the adaptor protein MyD88. Science 317:124–127
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyons JR, Lewis RS, Clayton RN (2009) Comment on “Experimental test of self-shielding in vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of CO.” Science 324:1516;author reply 1516
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Huang W, Thomas B, Flynn RA, et al (2018) Retraction Note: DDX5 and its associated lncRNA Rmrp modulate TH17 cell effector functions. Nature 562:150

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horstmeyer SL (2011) The Weather Almanac. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Alon N, Bourgain J, Connes A, et al (eds) (2010) Visions in Mathematics: GAFA 2000 Special volume, Part II. Birkhäuser, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Brown CT, Liebovitch LS, Glendon R (2010) Hunter–Gatherers Optimize Their Foraging Patterns Using Lévy Flights. In: Bates DG, Tucker J (eds) Human Ecology: Contemporary Research and Practice. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 51–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Economic Structures.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2017) Here Are The Ages You Peak At Everything Throughout Life. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Longer Combination Trucks: Potential Infrastructure Impacts, Productivity Benefits, and Safety Concerns. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gallardo-Macias R (2009) Tin (II) compounds as novel catalysts for the Kabachnik-Fields reaction: Studies in the synthesis of alpha-aminophosphonates under solvent free conditions and Synthesis of phosphonates and phosphates as reversible and irreversible inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E (1996) At the Nation’s Table: Buffalo;Bottling the Secret Of the Wings. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Isselbacher 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Rakoff-Nahoum and Medzhitov 2007; Isselbacher 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rakoff-Nahoum and Medzhitov 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Economic Structures
AbbreviationJ. Econ. Struct.
ISSN (online)2193-2409

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