How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Virology (JMV). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Temple S. The development of neural stem cells. Nature. 2001;414(6859):112-117.
A journal article with 2 authors
Edgar BA, Kim KJ. Cell biology. Sizing up the cell. Science. 2009;325(5937):158-159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vokrouhlický D, Nesvorný D, Bottke WF. The vector alignments of asteroid spins by thermal torques. Nature. 2003;425(6954):147-151.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lu H, Yang X, Ye M, et al. Culinary archaeology: Millet noodles in Late Neolithic China. Nature. 2005;437(7061):967-968.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Karr R. Lead, Sell, or Get Out of the Way. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Pathomvanich D, Imagawa K, eds. Hair Restoration Surgery in Asians. Springer Japan; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Chang D, Yung M, Sung J, Hong S, Lee S. Preimage Attack on the Parallel FFT-Hashing Function. In: Pieprzyk J, Ghodosi H, Dawson E, eds. Information Security and Privacy: 12th Australasian Conference, ACISP 2007, Townsville, Australia, July 2-4, 2007. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2007:59-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Virology.

Blog post
Luntz S. According To A Nasa Funded Study, We’re Pretty Much Screwed. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Aging Federal Laboratories Need Repairs and Upgrades. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gunhan-Senol NE. “I’m Turkish, I’m Honest...” I’m Autistic: Perceptions Regarding the Label of Autism. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. In East Hampton, an Airport Is Viewed as a Roaring, Round-the-Clock Nuisance. New York Times. July 4, 2017:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Virology
ISSN (print)0146-6615
ISSN (online)1096-9071

Other styles