How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Virology (JMV). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger K. At last, a chance for postdocs to learn how to teach. Nature. 2002;415(6875):5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Masiello CA, Louchouarn P. Ecology. Fire in the ocean. Science. 2013;340(6130):287-288.
A journal article with 3 authors
Garner HR, McIver LJ, Waitzkin MB. Research funding: Same work, twice the money? Nature. 2013;493(7434):599-601.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
de Nijs PJ, Berry NJ, Wells GJ, Reay DS. Quantification of biophysical adaptation benefits from Climate-Smart Agriculture using a Bayesian Belief Network. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6682.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Battu D. New Telecom Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Gelenbe E, Lent R, eds. Computer and Information Sciences III: 27th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Malczewski J, Rinner C. Multiobjective Optimization Methods. In: Rinner C, ed. Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Geographic Information Science. Advances in Geographic Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015:123-143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Virology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Fastest Known Organism Is A Fungus - Check It Out In Slow Motion. IFLScience. Published September 1, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Freight Rail Security: Actions Have Been Taken to Enhance Security, but the Federal Strategy Can Be Strengthened and Security Efforts Better Monitored. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ko T-CT. The ALISA delta(CRC) classifier for natural surfaces: Viewpoint-invariant and illumination-invariant classification of natural surfaces using general-purpose color and texture features with the ALISA delta(CRC) classifier. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. Immersed in Scores, Concerts and Classes. New York Times. December 9, 2016:MB2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Virology
ISSN (print)0146-6615
ISSN (online)1096-9071

Other styles