How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Virology (JMV). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hurtgen MT. Geochemistry. The marine sulfur cycle, revisited. Science. 2012;337(6092):305-306.
A journal article with 2 authors
Worby CA, Dixon JE. Microbiology. Bacteria seize control by acetylating host proteins. Science. 2006;312(5777):1150-1151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson PTJ, de Roode JC, Fenton A. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology. Science. 2015;349(6252):1259504.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pascal AA, Liu Z, Broess K, et al. Molecular basis of photoprotection and control of photosynthetic light-harvesting. Nature. 2005;436(7047):134-137.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bilisoly R. Practical Text Mining with Perl. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Duque G, Watanabe K, eds. Osteoporosis Research: Animal Models. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Fernández A, Peralta D, Herrera F, Benítez JM. An Overview of E-Learning in Cloud Computing. In: Uden L, Corchado Rodríguez ES, De Paz Santana JF, De la Prieta F, eds. Workshop on Learning Technology for Education in Cloud (LTEC’12). Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer; 2012:35-46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Virology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Amazing Video Of Earth From Space, Set To A Pink Floyd Soundtrack. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Systems: Agencies Overlook Security Controls During Development. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeLima LE. Implementing an Innovative Educational Program in an Era of Accountability: An Interview Study of the Expeditionary Learning Program. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George R. The Taboo of Menstruation. New York Times. December 29, 2012:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Virology
ISSN (print)0146-6615
ISSN (online)1096-9071

Other styles