How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Virology (JMV). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bruneau BG. The developmental genetics of congenital heart disease. Nature. 2008;451(7181):943-948.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim J, Swager TM. Control of conformational and interpolymer effects in conjugated polymers. Nature. 2001;411(6841):1030-1034.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang C, Chan CT, Hu X. Broadband focusing and collimation of water waves by zero refractive index. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6979.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Denver DR, Morris K, Lynch M, Thomas WK. High mutation rate and predominance of insertions in the Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear genome. Nature. 2004;430(7000):679-682.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosenberger WR. Risk-Adjusted Lending Conditions. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Mullin T, Kerswell R, eds. IUTAM Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition and Finite Amplitude Solutions. Vol 77. Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Frey N, Fisher D. Reading and the Young Brain. In: Wasserman LH, Zambo D, eds. Early Childhood and Neuroscience - Links to Development and Learning. Springer Netherlands; 2013:43-54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Virology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Brain Cells Governing Overeating And Sugar Addiction Identified. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Toward Equality: Education of the Deaf. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Redcay JD. Kindergarten Students’ Reading Performance and Perceptions of Ludus Reading: A Mixed-Method Study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Lehman Bros. Grapples With Arts Zoning Rules. New York Times. January 6, 2002:144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Virology
ISSN (print)0146-6615
ISSN (online)1096-9071

Other styles