How to format your references using the Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cravens TE. X-ray emission from comets. Science. 2002;296:1042–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Druckman JN, Lupia A. Social science. Experimenting with politics. Science. 2012;335:1177–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Richards-Kortum R, Gray LV, Oden M. IBI* series winner. Engaging undergraduates in global health technology innovation. Science. 2012;336:430–1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mastrolorenzo G, Petrone PP, Pagano M, Incoronato A, Baxter PJ, Canzanella A, et al. Herculaneum victims of Vesuvius in ad 79. Nature. 2001;410:769–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Williams T, Turton V. Trading Economics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Smeets B. Beginning Google Web Toolkit: From Novice to Professional. Boness U, Bankras R, editors. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Andrzejewski K, Rovenski V, Walczak P. Integral Formulas in Foliation Theory. In: Rovenski V, Walczak P, editors. Geometry and its Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 73–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. This Hair Dye Changes Color Depending On The Temperature Around You [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Credit Reporting Literacy Survey Data, an E-supplement to GAO-05-223. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Mar. Report No.: GAO-05-411SP.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Amanoua KP. Langue et identité dans les milieux populaires québécois et antillais [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Herskovic L. Who’s That Cat? New York Times. 2017 Jun 23;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
AbbreviationCurr. Treat. Options Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1092-8472
ISSN (online)1534-309X

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