How to format your references using the Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chin JW. Journal club. A molecular biologist gets excited about making designer proteins in cells. Nature. 2009;457:239.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Akiyama T, Gibson MC. Decapentaplegic and growth control in the developing Drosophila wing. Nature. 2015;527:375–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pesaran B, Nelson MJ, Andersen RA. Free choice activates a decision circuit between frontal and parietal cortex. Nature. 2008;453:406–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Doiron-Leyraud N, Proust C, LeBoeuf D, Levallois J, Bonnemaison J-B, Liang R, et al. Quantum oscillations and the Fermi surface in an underdoped high-Tc superconductor. Nature. 2007;447:565–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lin XS. Introductory Stochastic Analysis for Finance and Insurance: Lin/Introductory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Jackman AL, Leamon CP, editors. Targeted Drug Strategies for Cancer and Inflammation. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bojarovich J, Marchenko L. An Open Queueing Network with Temporarily Non-active Customers and Rounds. In: Dudin A, Klimenok V, Tsarenkov G, Dudin S, editors. Modern Probabilistic Methods for Analysis of Telecommunication Networks: Belarusian Winter Workshops in Queueing Theory, BWWQT 2013, Minsk, Belarus, January 28-31, 2013 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 33–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Oldest Known Rock Discovered [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FCC: Rules and Policies for Local Multipoint Distribution Service and for Fixed Satellite Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 May. Report No.: OGC-98-53.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chitakasempornkul K. Ordinal time series analysis for Air Quality Index (AQI) in San Bernardino County [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Oestreich JR. Revisiting a Conductor’s Early Triumph, With Touches of Mystery and Elegance. New York Times. 2016 Oct 11;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
AbbreviationCurr. Treat. Options Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1092-8472
ISSN (online)1534-309X

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