How to format your references using the Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rapley C. Climate science: Time to raft up. Nature. 2012;488:583–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Quental TB, Marshall CR. How the Red Queen drives terrestrial mammals to extinction. Science. 2013;341:290–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hernlund JW, Thomas C, Tackley PJ. A doubling of the post-perovskite phase boundary and structure of the Earth’s lowermost mantle. Nature. 2005;434:882–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hatnean MC, Lees MR, Paul DMK, Balakrishnan G. Large, high quality single-crystals of the new Topological Kondo Insulator, SmB6. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3071.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schwedt G. Chemie und Literatur - ein ungewöhnlicher Flirt. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2009.
An edited book
1. Lee J-D, Heshmati A, editors. Productivity, Efficiency, and Economic Growth in the Asia-Pacific Region. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Eglash R, Garvey C. Basins of Attraction for Generative Justice. In: Banerjee S, Erçetin ŞŞ, Tekin A, editors. Chaos Theory in Politics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 75–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Visualization Of Recent Asteroid Impacts With Earth [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. U.S.-Japan Cooperative Development: Progress on FS-X Program Enhances Japanese Aerospace Capabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Aug. Report No.: NSIAD-95-145.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kashyap SK. Bit Error Rate Performance of 4x2 Space-Time MIMO-OFDM Conjugate Cancellation Techniques [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Alvarez L. Pandemonium Followed Rumor of Second Airport Attacker. New York Times. 2017 Jan 9;A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
AbbreviationCurr. Treat. Options Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1092-8472
ISSN (online)1534-309X

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