How to format your references using the Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kay RF. Anthropology. New World monkey origins. Science. 2015;347:1068–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Li J, Nam KH. Regulation of brassinosteroid signaling by a GSK3/SHAGGY-like kinase. Science. 2002;295:1299–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jönsson TJ, Johnson LC, Lowther WT. Structure of the sulphiredoxin-peroxiredoxin complex reveals an essential repair embrace. Nature. 2008;451:98–101.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Berry N, Davis C, Jenkins A, Wood D, Minor P, Schild G, et al. Vaccine safety. Analysis of oral polio vaccine CHAT stocks. Nature. 2001;410:1046–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Anthony B, Boudnik K, Adams C, Shao B, Lee C, Sasaki K. Professional Hadoop®. Indianapolis, IN, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
1. Khatri N, Ojha AK, editors. Crony Capitalism in India: Establishing Robust Counteractive Institutional Frameworks. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Genovese A, Piuri V, Scotti F. Palmprint Biometrics. In: Piuri V, Scotti F, editors. Touchless Palmprint Recognition Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 49–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Incredible Video Shows Volcanic Eruption in Papua New Guinea [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Productivity, Science and Technology: Keys to U.S. Economic Growth. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Mar. Report No.: 105610.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Demenkoff JH. Evolution and emergence of the masculinities: Epiphanies and epiphenomena of the male athlete and dancer [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Bilefsky D, Chan S. Dispute Over British Baby’s Fate Draws In President and Pope. New York Times. 2017 Jul 3;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
AbbreviationCurr. Treat. Options Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1092-8472
ISSN (online)1534-309X

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