How to format your references using the NPG Asia Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NPG Asia Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M. Chemistry masterclass. Nature 502, S49 (2013).
A journal article with 2 authors
Baxter, G. W. & Olafsen, J. S. Kinetics: Gaussian statistics in granular gases. Nature 425, 680 (2003).
A journal article with 3 authors
Bannani, A., Bobisch, C. & Möller, R. Ballistic electron microscopy of individual molecules. Science 315, 1824–1828 (2007).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Agrawal, N., Sachdev, B., Rodrigues, J., Sree, K. S. & Bhatnagar, R. K. Development associated profiling of chitinase and microRNA of Helicoverpa armigera identified chitinase repressive microRNA. Sci. Rep. 3, 2292 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bauer, E., Adams, R. & Eustace, D. Beyond Redundancy. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011).
An edited book
The Vienna Circle in the Nordic Countries. 14, (Springer Netherlands, 2010).
A chapter in an edited book
Kozlovics, S. in Databases and Information Systems: 12th International Baltic Conference, DB&IS 2016, Riga, Latvia, July 4-6, 2016, Proceedings (eds. Arnicans, G., Arnicane, V., Borzovs, J. & Niedrite, L.) 53–67 (Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NPG Asia Materials.

Blog post
Andrew, E. A 1.8 million year old skull indicates there may have been just one human species on Earth at that time. IFLScience (2013).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Data Security Software. (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sahebjame, M. Marriage: An authentic Iranian experience of the modern. (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. Eugene R. Anderson, 82; He Made Insurers Pay Up. New York Times A17 (2010).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNPG Asia Materials
AbbreviationNPG Asia Mater.
ISSN (print)1884-4049
ISSN (online)1884-4057
ScopeGeneral Materials Science
Modelling and Simulation
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles