How to format your references using the American Journal of Veterinary Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Veterinary Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bourzac K. Collaborations: Mining the motherlodes. Nature 2015;527:S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Moore PB, Steitz TA. The involvement of RNA in ribosome function. Nature 2002;418:229–235.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pollitz FF, Wicks C, Thatcher W. Mantle flow beneath a continental strike-slip fault: postseismic deformation after the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake. Science 2001;293:1814–1818.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Mähönen AP, Bishopp A, Higuchi M, et al. Cytokinin signaling and its inhibitor AHP6 regulate cell fate during vascular development. Science 2006;311:94–98.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hoffmann W. The Economic Competitiveness of Renewable Energy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Wong BT. Thermal Transport for Applications in Micro/Nanomachining. (Mengüç MP, ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cerdà V, Avivar J, Ferrer L, et al. Automatic Water and Wastewater Quality Monitoring Systems. In: Mukhopadhyay SC, Mason A, eds. Smart Sensors for Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring. Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:105–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Veterinary Research.

Blog post
1. Fang J. CT Scan Reveals Hernia In Korean Mummy. IFLScience 2014. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Social Security Administration: Additional Actions Needed in Ongoing Efforts to Improve 800-Number Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Thompson K. An Introduction to the Cox Proportional Hazards Model and Its Applications to Survival Analysis. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. McKINLEY JC Jr, Rojas R. An Impostor’s Lives and Lies. New York Times. February 7, 2016:MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
AbbreviationAm. J. Vet. Res.
ISSN (print)0002-9645
ISSN (online)1943-5681
ScopeGeneral Medicine
General Veterinary

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