How to format your references using the American Journal of Veterinary Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Veterinary Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bourzac K. Collaborations: Mining the motherlodes. Nature 2015;527:S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ha S-J, Moon JH. In-situ fabrication of macroporous films for dye-sensitised solar cells: formation of the scattering layer and the gelation of electrolytes. Sci Rep 2014;4:5375.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Reiner JW, Walker FJ, Ahn CH. Materials science. Atomically engineered oxide interfaces. Science 2009;323:1018–1019.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Rumpel S, LeDoux J, Zador A, et al. Postsynaptic receptor trafficking underlying a form of associative learning. Science 2005;308:83–88.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Grimble MJ. Robust Industrial Control Systems. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Musazzi S, Perini U eds. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Solymár K, Mádai F, Papanastassiou D. Effect of Bauxite Microstructure on Beneficiation and Processing. In: Donaldson D, Raahauge BE, eds. Essential Readings in Light Metals: Volume 1 Alumina and Bauxite. TRAVAUX de l’ICSOBA, No. 13. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016;37–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Veterinary Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. A New State Of Matter: Quantum Spin Liquids Explained. IFLScience 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional Action Needed to Achieve Intended Outcomes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Watson KF. Persons and how we trace them: What Johnston got wrong. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. Hoping for Another Really Groovy Time. New York Times. April 14, 2017:AR21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
AbbreviationAm. J. Vet. Res.
ISSN (print)0002-9645
ISSN (online)1943-5681
ScopeGeneral Medicine
General Veterinary

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