How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Ultrasound citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Ultrasound. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. Ocean researchers dive to deep-sea stations. Nature 2000;406:449.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huey RB, Ward PD. Hypoxia, global warming, and terrestrial late Permian extinctions. Science 2005;308:398–401.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang C, Shim M, Guyot-Sionnest P. Electrochromic nanocrystal quantum dots. Science 2001;291:2390–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhu Y, Zhu L-N, Guo R, Cui H-J, Ye S, Fang Q. Nanoliter-scale protein crystallization and screening with a microfluidic droplet robot. Sci Rep 2014;4:5046.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reeve WD. DC Power System Design for Telecommunications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Middleton JA, Cai J, Hwang S, editors. Large-Scale Studies in Mathematics Education. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Villena JF, Schilders WHA, Miguel Silveira L. Parametric Structure-Preserving Model Order Reduction. In: Hasler P, Mooney V, Reis R, editors. VLSI-SoC: Advanced Topics on Systems on a Chip: A Selection of Extended Versions of the Best Papers of the Fourteenth International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration of System on Chip (VLSI-SoC2007), October 15-17, 2007, Atlanta, USA, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009, p. 1–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Ultrasound.

Blog post
Taub B. How Card Players’ Eyes Give Their Hand Away. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. University Funding: Assessing Federal Funding Mechanisms for University Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glazer K. Imagining a constructionist game-based pedagogical model: Using tabletop role-playing game creation to enhance literature education in high school English classes. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Engels Would Gasp, and Locals Gripe, at a Golden Mile. New York Times 2006:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Ultrasound
AbbreviationJ. Med. Ultrasound
ISSN (print)0929-6441
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles