How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pierrehumbert RT. Warming the world. Nature. 2004;432:677.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ouellette AJ, Selsted ME. Immunology. HD6 defensin nanonets. Science. 2012;337:420–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wagemaker M, Kentgens APM, Mulder FM. Equilibrium lithium transport between nanocrystalline phases in intercalated TiO(2) anatase. Nature. 2002;418:397–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Banerjee A, Yang W, Karplus M, Verdine GL. Structure of a repair enzyme interrogating undamaged DNA elucidates recognition of damaged DNA. Nature. 2005;434:612–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hersent O. IP Telephony. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1. Volkmann CK, Tokarski KO, Ernst K, editors. Social Entrepreneurship and Social Business: An Introduction and Discussion with Case Studies. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ferreira JJM, Raposo ML, Fernandes CI. The Impact of Inter-firm Cooperation on Performance: A Two-Region Experience. In: Ferreira JJM, Raposo M, Rutten R, Varga A, editors. Cooperation, Clusters, and Knowledge Transfer: Universities and Firms Towards Regional Competitiveness. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 81–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Toxicology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Preserving the X-ray Universe for future generations. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information on State Versus Local Administration of CETA Prime Sponsors in Michigan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Sep. Report No.: HRD-82-117.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hongxia D. Social Process of Environmental Risk Perception, Preferences of Risk Management and Public Participation in Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Study Between the United States and China [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Reconsiders Pivotal Louisiana Case on Racial Selection of Juries. New York Times. 2007 Dec 5;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Toxicology
AbbreviationJ. Med. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)1556-9039
ISSN (online)1937-6995
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Other styles