How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hyatt LA. IBI* series winner. Personal plants: making botany meaningful by experimentation. Science. 2012;337:1620–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Oliveri P, Davidson EH. Development. Built to run, not fail. Science. 2007;315:1510–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Yoshizawa M, Tamura M, Fujita M. Diels-alder in aqueous molecular hosts: unusual regioselectivity and efficient catalysis. Science. 2006;312:251–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Vo N, Horii T, Yanai H, Yoshida H, Yamaguchi M. The Hippo pathway as a target of the Drosophila DRE/DREF transcriptional regulatory pathway. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7196.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. New TR. Hymenoptera and Conservation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Gulati K. Hardware Acceleration of EDA Algorithms: Custom ICs, FPGAs and GPUs. Khatri SP, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dedov VN, Griffiths FM, Garner B, Halliday GM, Double KL. Lipid content determines aggregation of neuromelanin granules in vitro. In: Gerlach M, Deckert J, Double K, Koutsilieri E, editors. Neuropsychiatric Disorders An Integrative Approach. Vienna: Springer; 2007. p. 35–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Toxicology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. After 400 Years, Mathematicians Find A New Class Of Solid Shapes [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Freight Transportation: National Policy and Strategies Can Help Improve Freight Mobility. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Jan. Report No.: GAO-08-287.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mersch C. Campus-based drunk-driving intervention program: A grant proposal project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Rodriguez Stands Alone, and That’s a Good Thing. New York Times. 2010 Feb 26;B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Toxicology
AbbreviationJ. Med. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)1556-9039
ISSN (online)1937-6995
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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