How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Rheumatology (JCR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bilham R. Lessons from the Haiti earthquake. Nature. 2010;463:878-879.
A journal article with 2 authors
Funk JL, Vitousek PM. Resource-use efficiency and plant invasion in low-resource systems. Nature. 2007;446:1079-1081.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wong CP, Luo S, Zhang Z. MICROELECTRONICS: Flip the Chip. Science. 2000;290:2269-2270.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huan J, Wan K, Liu Y, Dong W, Wang G. Removing PCR for the elimination of undesired DNA fragments cycle by cycle. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Early WF II. Contractor and Client Relations to Assure Process Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Pâques LE, ed. Forest Tree Breeding in Europe: Current State-of-the-Art and Perspectives. Vol 25. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Tschachler E, Tiplica G-S. Venereal Disease I: Syphilis. In: Ólafsson JH, Hay RJ, eds. Antibiotic and Antifungal Therapies in Dermatology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:57-68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Rheumatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Fish With Human-Like Teeth Found in Jersey Lake. IFLScience. Available at: Published June 26, 2015 Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Success Depends Upon Strong Management and Structured Approach. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Esmaili G. Application of Advanced Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Sources and Hybrid Generating Systems. 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Jeter J, Bromwich JE, Chokshi N. Wildfires Force Thousands to Flee in East Tennessee. New York Times. November 29, 2016:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Rheumatology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Rheumatol.
ISSN (print)1076-1608
ISSN (online)1536-7355

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