How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Baywatch: San Francisco. Nature 2004;427(6975):658–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davidson AL, Chen J. Structural biology. Flipping lipids: is the third time the charm? Science 2005;308(5724):963–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang J, Mei Y, Hicks D. Science communication. Comment on “Quantifying long-term scientific impact.” Science 2014;345(6193):149.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Milly PCD, Wetherald RT, Dunne KA, Delworth TL. Increasing risk of great floods in a changing climate. Nature 2002;415(6871):514–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Uribe S. Frontier Road. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Coyne GV. A Comprehensible Universe: The Interplay of Science and Theology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Mierzejewski K, Reardon RC, Thistle H, Dubois NR. Conventional application equipment: aerial application. In: Lacey LA, Kaya HK, editors. Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and other Invertebrate Pests. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. page 99–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Physics.

Blog post
Fang J. Ancient Hypercarnivores Reined In Mammoths And Other Megaherbivores [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: FAA Uses Earned Value Techniques to Help Manage Information Technology Acquisitions, but Needs to Clarify Policy and Strengthen Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Delmont LO. Wings pumping, wings stilled. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J. Duane Graveline, Forced Out as Astronaut, Dies at 85. New York Times2016;A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Physics
AbbreviationJ. Med. Phys.
ISSN (print)0971-6203
ISSN (online)1998-3913
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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