How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leggett AJ. The quantum measurement problem. Science 2005;307(5711):871–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee BH, Amon A. Role of Polo-like kinase CDC5 in programming meiosis I chromosome segregation. Science 2003;300(5618):482–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Quax R, Kandhai D, Sloot PMA. Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series. Sci Rep 2013;3:1898.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Steemans P, Hérissé AL, Melvin J, Miller MA, Paris F, Verniers J, et al. Origin and radiation of the earliest vascular land plants. Science 2009;324(5925):353.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiGrado BD, Thorp GA. The Aboveground Steel Storage Tank Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Liu J. Advanced Sliding Mode Control for Mechanical Systems: Design, Analysis and MATLAB Simulation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Gore ML, Cooter EJ, Dennis RL, Pleim JE, Aneja VP. Ammonia Emissions in the US: Assessing the Role of Bi-directional Ammonia Transport Using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model. In: Sutton MA, Mason KE, Sheppard LJ, Sverdrup H, Haeuber R, Hicks WK, editors. Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. page 31–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Physics.

Blog post
Andrew D. How We Discovered The ‘Higgs Bison’, Hiding In Plain Sight In Ancient Cave Art. IFLScience2016;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Exploration: Cost, Schedule, and Performance of NASA’s Magellan Mission to Venus. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson C. Psycho-socio-cultural risk factors for breech presentation. 2008;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kerry J. What We Got Right. New York Times2017;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Physics
AbbreviationJ. Med. Phys.
ISSN (print)0971-6203
ISSN (online)1998-3913
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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