How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kiick KL. Materials science. Polymer therapeutics. Science 2007;317:1182–1183.
A journal article with 2 authors
Droser ML, Gehling JG. Synchronous aggregate growth in an abundant new Ediacaran tubular organism. Science 2008;319:1660–1662.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyon BE, Chaine AS, Winkler DW. Ecology. A matter of timing. Science 2008;321:1051–1052.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Prosperi MCF, Yin L, Nolan DJ, Lowe AD, Goodenow MM, et al. Empirical validation of viral quasispecies assembly algorithms: state-of-the-art and challenges. Sci Rep 2013;3:2837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Linder B. Thermodynamics and Introductory Statistical Mechanics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
Minai A, Braha D, Bar-Yam Y (eds). Unifying Themes in Complex Systems: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Complex Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Rensink A, Zambon E. Pattern-Based Graph Abstraction. In: Ehrig H, Engels G, Kreowski H-J, Rozenberg G (editors). Graph Transformations: 6th International Conference, ICGT 2012, Bremen, Germany, September 24-29, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. pp. 66–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Microbiology.

Blog post
Hale T. US Life Expectancy Drops For The First Time In Over Two Decades. IFLScience. (2016, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Transportation Safety Board: Observations on the Draft Business Plan for NTSB’s Training Center. GAO-07-886R; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 14 June 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheaton HF. The Relationship between Team Captains’ Leadership Styles and Team Performance. Doctoral Dissertation; University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. A Tempest in a Bourbon Bottle. New York Times, 28 April 2016, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Microbiology
AbbreviationJ. Med. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0022-2615
ISSN (online)1473-5644
General Medicine
Microbiology (medical)

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