How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier Q. Pity poor postdocs. Nature 2005;434:540–541.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kawasaki H, Taira K. Hes1 is a target of microRNA-23 during retinoic-acid-induced neuronal differentiation of NT2 cells. Nature 2003;423:838–842.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nir E, Kleinermanns K, de Vries MS. Pairing of isolated nucleic-acid bases in the absence of the DNA backbone. Nature 2000;408:949–951.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Najiminaini M, Vasefi F, Kaminska B, Carson JJL. Nanohole-array-based device for 2D snapshot multispectral imaging. Sci Rep 2013;3:2589.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiman J. As Free and as Just as Possible. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Dössel O, Schlegel WC (eds). World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/4 Image Processing, Biosignal Processing, Modelling and Simulation, Biomechanics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Stegelin D, Cecconi L. Kindergarten Environments in Reggio Emilia, Bologna, Modena, and Parma, Italy In Search of Quality. In: Clark Wortham S (editor). Common Characteristics and Unique Qualities in Preschool Programs: Global Perspectives in Early Childhood Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. pp. 47–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Watch Live Webcast of Second Total Lunar Eclipse of 2014. IFLScience. (2014, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Systems: VA Actions to Improve Management of Information Resources. IMTEC-89-24; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 25 April 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zehnder DW. Host-[2]Rotaxane: A Novel Molecular Machine. Doctoral Dissertation; University of Cincinnati; 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. A Focus on Cheese. New York Times, 16 January 2011, p. NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Microbiology
AbbreviationJ. Med. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0022-2615
ISSN (online)1473-5644
General Medicine
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles