How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parak WJ. Materials science. Complex colloidal assembly. Science 2011;334:1359–1360.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aeppli G, Soh YA. Physics Quantum criticality in a clean metal. Science 2001;294:315–316.
A journal article with 3 authors
Timm RM, Ramey RR 2nd, Nomenclature Committee of the American Society of Mammalogists. What constitutes a proper description? Science 2005;309:2163–6; author reply 2163-6.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Gally C, Eimer S, Richmond JE, Bessereau J-L. A transmembrane protein required for acetylcholine receptor clustering in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 2004;431:578–582.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stanoyevitch A. Introduction to Numerical Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations Using MATLAB®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
Lorenz P, Dini P (eds). Networking - ICN 2005: 4th International Conference on Networking, Reunion Island, France, April 17-21, 2005, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Verbelen C, Andre G, Haulot X, Gilbert Y, Alsteens D, et al. Towards a Nanoscale View of Microbial Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope. In: Tomitori M, Bhushan B, Fuchs H (editors). Applied Scanning Probe Methods IX: Characterization. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. pp. 111–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Microbiology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Most, If Not All, Red Dwarf Stars Harbour At Least One Planet. IFLScience. (2014, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Comprehensive Strategy Can Draw on Year 2000 Experiences. AIMD-00-1; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1 October 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Truong T. Microfluidics-based system for high-throughput analysis of nitrite in harbor water. Doctoral Dissertation; California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Park LS. Origin of a Species. New York Times, 10 March 2017, p. BR17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Microbiology
AbbreviationJ. Med. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0022-2615
ISSN (online)1473-5644
General Medicine
Microbiology (medical)

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