How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hobert O. Gene regulation by transcription factors and microRNAs. Science 2008;319:1785–1786.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaspi Y, Schneider T. Winter cold of eastern continental boundaries induced by warm ocean waters. Nature 2011;471:621–624.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jaeger TF, Pontillo D, Graff P. Comment on ‘Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa’. Science 2012;335:1042; author reply 1042.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Kalchenko V, Israeli D, Kuznetsov Y, Harmelin A. Transcranial optical vascular imaging (TOVI) of cortical hemodynamics in mouse brain. Sci Rep 2014;4:5839.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hirsch HL. Essential Communication Strategies for Scientists, Engineers, and Technology Professionals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Pokorski M (ed). Respiratory Regulation - Clinical Advances. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Semm T, Greene K. Globalization, Aging, and the Power of the Image. In: Arxer SL, Murphy JW (editors). The Symbolism of Globalization, Development, and Aging. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. pp. 59–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew D. Sad But Adorable Animal Facts That Will Ruin Your Day. IFLScience. (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Software Change Controls at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. AIMD-00-196R; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 30 June 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oparnica D. The role of nurses in health care reform: A project report. Doctoral Dissertation; California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. How Johnson Might Balance Ambassadorship and the Jets. New York Times, 20 January 2017, p. D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Microbiology
AbbreviationJ. Med. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0022-2615
ISSN (online)1473-5644
General Medicine
Microbiology (medical)

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