How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neumann K. Anthropology. New Guinea: a cradle of agriculture. Science 2003;301:180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG. Neuroscience. AMPA receptors--another twist? Science 2010;327:1463–1465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spencer JP, Dineva E, Smith LB. Comment on ‘Infants’ perseverative search errors are induced by pragmatic misinterpretation’. Science 2009;325:1624; author reply 1624.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Márquez LM, Redman RS, Rodriguez RJ, Roossinck MJ. A virus in a fungus in a plant: three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance. Science 2007;315:513–515.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrington PJ. Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry for Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Heiberger RM. R Through Excel: A Spreadsheet Interface for Statistics, Data Analysis, and Graphics. New York, NY: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Yin P, Ye M, Lee W-C, Li Z. Mining GPS Data for Trajectory Recommendation. In: Tseng VS, Ho TB, Zhou Z-H, Chen ALP, Kao H-Y (editors). Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 18th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2014, Tainan, Taiwan, May 13-16, 2014. Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. pp. 50–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Nature’s Lubricant Makes Your Body A Well-Oiled Machine. IFLScience. (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Labor: Further Management Improvements Needed to Address Information Technology and Financial Controls. GAO-11-157; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 16 March 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bleviss C. Constructing competence: Normalization and self-determination for people with developmental disabilities. Doctoral Dissertation; California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. White House Offers Justifications for Firing. New York Times, 11 May 2017, p. A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Microbiology
AbbreviationJ. Med. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0022-2615
ISSN (online)1473-5644
General Medicine
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles