How to format your references using the Frontiers in Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser, J. (2000). ECOLOGY: California Algae May Be Feared European Species. Science 289, 222b–3b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ravi, M., and Chan, S. W. L. (2010). Haploid plants produced by centromere-mediated genome elimination. Nature 464, 615–618.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nabel, G. J., Wolinsky, S. M., and Haynes, B. F. (2012). Retrospective. Norman L. Letvin (1949-2012). Science 336, 1653.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang, Z., Gildersleeve, J., Yang, Y.-Y., Xu, R., Loo, J. A., Uryu, S., et al. (2004). A new strategy for the synthesis of glycoproteins. Science 303, 371–373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
AIChE technical manual (1998). Dow’s Chemical Exposure Index Guide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gartner, G., and Ortag, F. eds. (2010). Cartography in Central and Eastern Europe: CEE 2009. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yamada, S., and Tamura, Y. (2016). “Hazard Rates for Embedded OSS Reliability Analysis,” in OSS Reliability Measurement and Assessment Springer Series in Reliability Engineering., ed. Y. Tamura (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 33–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017). Has Metallic Hydrogen Been Achieved For The First Time? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Space Projects: Improvements Needed in Selecting Future Projects for Private Financing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kolaski, G. W. (2010). Cultural awareness and the U.S. military advisor in the Arab Middle East: A phenomenological study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, T., and Fernandez, M. (2016). Victim Posed No Threat to Police, Family Says. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kaiser, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kaiser, 2000; Ravi and Chan, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ravi and Chan, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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