How to format your references using the Frontiers in Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware, P. (2000). Progress from a fragile start. Nature 403, 466.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luoto, T. P., and Nevalainen, L. (2013). Long-term water temperature reconstructions from mountain lakes with different catchment and morphometric features. Sci. Rep. 3, 2488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bahmani, B., Bacon, D., and Anvari, B. (2013). Erythrocyte-derived photo-theranostic agents: hybrid nano-vesicles containing indocyanine green for near infrared imaging and therapeutic applications. Sci. Rep. 3, 2180.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Das, N., Chatterjee, S., Kumar, S., Pradhan, A., Panigrahi, P., Vitkin, I. A., et al. (2014). Tissue multifractality and Born approximation in analysis of light scattering: a novel approach for precancers detection. Sci. Rep. 4, 6129.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perini, K., and Sabbion, P. (2017). Urban Sustainability and River Restoration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Fehlman, W. L. (2009). Mobile Robot Navigation with Intelligent Infrared Image Interpretation. , ed. M. K. Hinders London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rudolph-Cleff, A. (2016). “Urban Interplay,” in Urbanization and Locality: Strengthening Identity and Sustainability by Site-Specific Planning and Design, eds. F. Wang and M. Prominski (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 75–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). Could Calcite Be Used For Geoengineering? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987). Effects of Delays in FAA’s NAS Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wells, J. P. (2010). A case study of educators’ perceptions of the effects of high -stakes testing and accountability policies on high- and low-poverty middle schools in a Maryland school district.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Peters, M. E., and Barend, S. (2017). Why Private Cash Improves Public Works. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wickware, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Luoto and Nevalainen, 2013; Wickware, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luoto and Nevalainen, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Das et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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