How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Internet Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D. US election: Not the best advice. Nature 2008 Sep 25;455(7212):453. PMID:18818626
A journal article with 2 authors
Safinya CR, Li Y. Materials science. Bundling with x-rays. Science 2010 Jan 29;327(5965):529–530. PMID:20110489
A journal article with 3 authors
Jaeger TF, Pontillo D, Graff P. Comment on “Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa.” Science 2012 Mar 2;335(6072):1042; author reply 1042. PMID:22383830
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dubrova YE, Plumb M, Gutierrez B, Boulton E, Jeffreys AJ. Transgenerational mutation by radiation. Nature 2000 May 4;405(6782):37. PMID:10811208

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu HH. Oracle Database Performance and Scalability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011. ISBN:9781118135532
An edited book
Kappauf J. Logistic Core Operations with SAP: Procurement, Production and Distribution Logistics. Lauterbach B, Koch M, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. ISBN:9783642182037
A chapter in an edited book
Halmenschlager CM, de Andrade MJ, Tarragó DP, de Fraga Malfatti C. Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications. In: Bergmann CP, Andrade MJ de, editors. Nanostructured Materials for Engineering Applications Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 57–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Internet Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. First Flight Test Today For NASA’s Newest Partner. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. Available from: [accessed Oct 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Additional Actions and Oversight Urgently Needed to Reduce Waste and Improve Performance in Acquisitions and Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Jun. Report No.: GAO-15-675T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClimon M. A transformational approach to jazz harmony [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Meyerowitz R, Kelly S. Box Seats; THE BIRDS OF SUMMER. New York Times 2007 May 13;810.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Internet Research
AbbreviationJ. Med. Internet Res.
ISSN (print)1439-4456
ISSN (online)1438-8871
ScopeHealth Informatics

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