How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Internet Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lusis AJ. Atherosclerosis. Nature 2000 Sep 14;407(6801):233–241. PMID:11001066
A journal article with 2 authors
Rehwinkel J, Reis e Sousa C. RIGorous detection: exposing virus through RNA sensing. Science 2010 Jan 15;327(5963):284–286. PMID:20075242
A journal article with 3 authors
Matthews AJ, Singhruck P, Heywood KJ. Deep ocean impact of a Madden-Julian oscillation observed by Argo floats. Science 2007 Dec 14;318(5857):1765–1769. PMID:18079400
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Reineke J, Tenzer S, Rupnik M, Koschinski A, Hasselmayer O, Schrattenholz A, Schild H, von Eichel-Streiber C. Autocatalytic cleavage of Clostridium difficile toxin B. Nature 2007 Mar 22;446(7134):415–419. PMID:17334356

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silvapulle MJ, Sen PK. Constrained Statistical Inference: Inequality, Order, and Shape Restrictions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2001. ISBN:9781118165614
An edited book
Tan CM. Electromigration Modeling at Circuit Layout Level. He F, editor. Singapore: Springer; 2013. ISBN:9789814451208
A chapter in an edited book
Armstrong PA, Bandyk DF. Duplex Scanning for Lower Extremity Arterial Disease. In: AbuRahma AF, Bergan JJ, editors. Noninvasive Peripheral Arterial Diagnosis London: Springer; 2010. p. 47–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Internet Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Stunning New “Farewell To Pluto” Image Reminds Us How Awesome This World Is [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Costs of Government Funded Trips for Invitees To Attend Space Shuttle Launches at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984 Apr. Report No.: NSIAD-84-77.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarter KM. The effect of auditory stimulation on learners with different learning styles [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times 2017 Feb 3;MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Internet Research
AbbreviationJ. Med. Internet Res.
ISSN (print)1439-4456
ISSN (online)1438-8871
ScopeHealth Informatics

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