How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Internet Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strunk C. Applied physics. Boosting magnetoresistance in molecular devices. Science 2004 Oct 1;306(5693):63–64. PMID:15459374
A journal article with 2 authors
Romanowicz B, Giardini D. Geophysics. The future of permanent seismic networks. Science 2001 Sep 14;293(5537):2000–2001. PMID:11557863
A journal article with 3 authors
Shiu R-F, Chin W-C, Lee C-L. Carbonaceous particles reduce marine microgel formation. Sci Rep 2014 Jul 28;4:5856. PMID:25068549
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Peterson AT, Ortega-Huerta MA, Bartley J, Sánchez-Cordero V, Soberón J, Buddemeier RH, Stockwell DRB. Future projections for Mexican faunas under global climate change scenarios. Nature 2002 Apr 11;416(6881):626–629. PMID:11948349

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belfiore LA. Transport Phenomena for Chemical Reactor Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2003. ISBN:9780471471622
An edited book
Mandelker L, Vajdovich P, editors. Studies on Veterinary Medicine. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2011. ISBN:9781617790706
A chapter in an edited book
Ballerio S, Cerizza D. Using Text Mining to Validate Diagnoses of Acute Myocardial Infarction. In: Grieco N, Marzegalli M, Paganoni AM, editors. New Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Organizational Strategies for Acute Coronary Syndromes Patients Milano: Springer; 2013. p. 69–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Internet Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Vaccines Back In The Headlines – Here’s What The Experts Say [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Amtrak: Issues for Reauthorization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-95-132.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ziegler RT. The Impact of Strategic Planning Involvement on Employee Engagement in a Federal Public Health Agency [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarey C. French Open Refuses To Admit Sharapova. New York Times 2017 May 16;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Internet Research
AbbreviationJ. Med. Internet Res.
ISSN (print)1439-4456
ISSN (online)1438-8871
ScopeHealth Informatics

Other styles