How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Internet Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaffan D. Neuroscience. Widespread cortical networks underlie memory and attention. Science 2005 Sep 30;309(5744):2172–2173. PMID:16195447
A journal article with 2 authors
Berenbaum MR, Eisner T. Ecology. Bugs’ bugs. Science 2008 Oct 3;322(5898):52–53. PMID:18832633
A journal article with 3 authors
Li Y, Zhang X, Cao D. The role of shape complementarity in the protein-protein interactions. Sci Rep 2013 Nov 20;3:3271. PMID:24253561
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Aso R, Kan D, Shimakawa Y, Kurata H. Atomic level observation of octahedral distortions at the perovskite oxide heterointerface. Sci Rep 2013;3:2214. PMID:23856752

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Avlonas N, Nassos GP. Practical Sustainability Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2013. ISBN:9781118787472
An edited book
Błaszczak Z, Markov B, Marinova K, editors. LASER 2006: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research “Nuclear Ground and Isometric State Properties” (LASER 2006) held in Poznán, Poland, 29 May–1 June 2006. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. ISBN:9783540711124
A chapter in an edited book
Graf J, Hecker M, Mohr M, Snelting G. Tool Demonstration: JOANA. In: Piessens F, Viganò L, editors. Principles of Security and Trust: 5th International Conference, POST 2016, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2016, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, April 2–8, 2016, Proceedings Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016. p. 89–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Internet Research.

Blog post
Hale T. 211 New Species Discovered In The Himalayas [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA: Constellation Program Cost and Schedule Will Remain Uncertain Until a Sound Business Case Is Established. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Aug. Report No.: GAO-09-844.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herkert HL. Toward an Unseen Shore: Imaginative Thinking in Childhood Grief [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Supreme Court Hears Plea for Help From Puerto Rico. New York Times 2016 Mar 23;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Internet Research
AbbreviationJ. Med. Internet Res.
ISSN (print)1439-4456
ISSN (online)1438-8871
ScopeHealth Informatics

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