How to format your references using the Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Krammer, P. H. (2000). CD95’s deadly mission in the immune system. Nature, 407(6805), 789–795.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keene, W. C., & Pszenny, A. A. P. (2004). Comment on “Reactions at interfaces as a source of sulfate formation in sea-salt particles” (I). Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5658), 628; author reply 628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, L., Wang, H., & Zhao, X. (2014). Effects of Rhodiola on production, health and gut development of broilers reared at high altitude in Tibet. Scientific Reports, 4, 7166.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gu, L., Tumkur, T. U., Zhu, G., & Noginov, M. A. (2014). Blue shift of spontaneous emission in hyperbolic metamaterial. Scientific Reports, 4, 4969.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
André, É., & Soulat, R. (2013). The Inverse Method. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rogova, G., & Scott, P. (Eds.). (2016). Fusion Methodologies in Crisis Management: Higher Level Fusion and Decision Making (1st ed. 2016). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jessell, M. W., Koehn, D., Bons, P. D., Jessell, M. W., Urai, J. L., Schenk, O., … Groome, W. G. (2008). Case studies and coupling of processes. In P. D. D. Bons, D. Koehn, & M. W. Jessell (Eds.), Microdynamics Simulation (pp. 207–266). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, February 1). This Could Be This First Female With “Tree Man Syndrome.” Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Highway Trust Fund: Nearly All States Received More Funding Than They Contributed in Highway Taxes Since 2005 (No. GAO-10-780). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, J. A. (2010). Functional analysis of ESAT-6 and EspB, two virulence proteins secreted by the ESX-1 system in Mycobacterium marinum (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. (2017, April 14). Finding the Humanity in ‘St. John.’ New York Times, p. C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Krammer, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Keene & Pszenny, 2004; Krammer, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keene & Pszenny, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Li, Wang, & Zhao, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gu, Tumkur, Zhu, & Noginov, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Tourism and Cultural Change
AbbreviationJ. Tour. Cult. Chang.
ISSN (print)1476-6825
ISSN (online)1747-7654
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development
Cultural Studies

Other styles