How to format your references using the Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, J. M. (2012). Therapeutics: Silencing psoriasis. Nature, 492(7429), S58-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lord, K. M., & Turekian, V. C. (2007). Science and society. Time for a new era of science diplomacy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5813), 769–770.
A journal article with 3 authors
Steinberger, B., Sutherland, R., & O’Connell, R. J. (2004). Prediction of Emperor-Hawaii seamount locations from a revised model of global plate motion and mantle flow. Nature, 430(6996), 167–173.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Perez, G. I., Trbovich, A. M., Gosden, R. G., & Tilly, J. L. (2000). Mitochondria and the death of oocytes. Nature, 403(6769), 500–501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allsopp, W. (2017). Advanced Penetration Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ranci, C., & Pavolini, E. (Eds.). (2013). Reforms in Long-Term Care Policies in Europe: Investigating Institutional Change and Social Impacts. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Baldwin, J. T. (2016). Foundations of Mathematics: Reliability and Clarity: The Explanatory Role of Mathematical Induction. In J. Väänänen, Å. Hirvonen, & R. de Queiroz (Eds.), Logic, Language, Information, and Computation: 23rd International Workshop, WoLLIC 2016, Puebla, Mexico, August 16-19th, 2016. Proceedings (pp. 68–82). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, June 7). AI Can Now “Draw” Humans - And It’s Absolutely Horrifying. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1970). Activities of Washington Data Processing Center Statistical Research Service (B-167008). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lew, M. M. (2017). Hydroxyl, Hydroperoxyl, and Organic Peroxy Radical Chemistry in Forested Areas: Measurements, Modeling and Implications for Atmospheric Chemistry [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery, M. (2017, September 15). Walmart Sticks With Arkansas Headquarters as Amazon Plays the Field. New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crow, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Crow, 2012; Lord & Turekian, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lord & Turekian, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Steinberger et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Perez et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Tourism and Cultural Change
AbbreviationJ. Tour. Cult. Chang.
ISSN (print)1476-6825
ISSN (online)1747-7654
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development
Cultural Studies

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