How to format your references using the Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holden, C. (2007). Stem cells. Data on Adult stem cells questioned. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5816), 1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouwens, R. J., & Illingworth, G. D. (2006). Rapid evolution of the most luminous galaxies during the first 900 million years. Nature, 443(7108), 189–192.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wellman, C. H., Osterloff, P. L., & Mohiuddin, U. (2003). Fragments of the earliest land plants. Nature, 425(6955), 282–285.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kumar, P., Wu, H., McBride, J. L., Jung, K.-E., Kim, M. H., Davidson, B. L., … Manjunath, N. (2007). Transvascular delivery of small interfering RNA to the central nervous system. Nature, 448(7149), 39–43.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Packard, A. (2010). Digital Media Law. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Bělohlávek, R. (2005). Fuzzy Equational Logic. (V. Vychodil, Ed.) (Vol. 186). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pardoux, E., & Răşcanu, A. (2014). Backward Stochastic Differential Equations. In A. Rӑşcanu (Ed.), Stochastic Differential Equations, Backward SDEs, Partial Differential Equations (pp. 353–515). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 21). People Near Fracking Wells Show Higher Hospitalization Rates. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Federal Education Funding: Overview of K-12 and Early Childhood Education Programs (No. GAO-10-51). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sitterding, M. C. (2014). Situation awareness and the selection of interruption handling strategies during the medication administration process: A qualitative study (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M. M. (2014, August 9). Bankruptcy Judge Gets View of Detroit Outside Courtroom. New York Times, p. A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nathan, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Collins, 2012; Scalapino, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bouwens & Illingworth, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Wellman, Osterloff, & Mohiuddin, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Abe et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Tourism and Cultural Change
AbbreviationJ. Tour. Cult. Chang.
ISSN (print)1476-6825
ISSN (online)1747-7654
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development
Cultural Studies

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