How to format your references using the Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jaffe, H. (2004). Public health. Whatever happened to the U.S. AIDS epidemic? Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5688), 1243–1244.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grill, E., & Christmann, A. (2007). Botany. A plant receptor with a big family. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5819), 1676–1677.
A journal article with 3 authors
DeCoursey, T. E., Morgan, D., & Cherny, V. V. (2003). The voltage dependence of NADPH oxidase reveals why phagocytes need proton channels. Nature, 422(6931), 531–534.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, I., Yoganarasimha, D., Rao, G., & Knierim, J. J. (2004). Comparison of population coherence of place cells in hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3. Nature, 430(6998), 456–459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geotechni, Laackmann, K., Balthaus, H., Braach, O., Friebel, W.-D., Hettler, A., Maidl, B., Meissner, M., Schuck, W., Schwaiger, S., Stephan, D., Thewes, M., & Wittke-Schmitt, B. (2015). Taschenbuch für den Tunnelbau 2015. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Klous, S. (2016). We are Big Data: The Future of the Information Society (N. Wielaard, Ed.). Atlantis Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Katori, M., & Majima, M. (2014). Renal (Tissue) Kallikrein-Kinin System in the Kidney and Novel Potential Drugs for Salt-Sensitive Hypertension. In J. N. Sharma (Ed.), Recent Developments in the Regulation of Kinins (pp. 59–109). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, September 16). More Than Half Of Sea Turtles Have Eaten Plastic. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Environmental Protection: Rocket Tests in Mississippi to Be Heavily Restricted (NSIAD-92-86). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Britigan, D. H. (2009). Health information sources and health literacy levels of Latinos in a midwestern tri -state area [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, June 5). More Than a Wizard. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jaffe, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Grill & Christmann, 2007; Jaffe, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grill & Christmann, 2007)
  • Three authors: (DeCoursey et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lee et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Tourism and Cultural Change
AbbreviationJ. Tour. Cult. Chang.
ISSN (print)1476-6825
ISSN (online)1747-7654
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development
Cultural Studies

Other styles