How to format your references using the Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Renne, P. R. (2002). Geology. Flood basalts--bigger and badder. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5574), 1812–1813.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fernandes, V. M., & Desplan, C. (2015). Neurobiology: Inversion in the worm. Nature, 523(7558), 44–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Seibel, B. A., Robison, B. H., & Haddock, S. H. D. (2005). Post-spawning egg care by a squid. Nature, 438(7070), 929.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Renault, M., Shintu, L., Piotto, M., & Caldarelli, S. (2013). Slow-spinning low-sideband HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy: delicate analysis of biological samples. Scientific Reports, 3, 3349.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes, B. K. (2015). Exercising Influence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jøsang, A., & Carlsson, B. (Eds.). (2012). Secure IT Systems: 17th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2012, Karlskrona, Sweden, October 31 – November 2, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 7617). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hsu, K.-S., Lin, M.-T., & Tong, C.-J. (2011). The Measurement of Cyclic Creep Behavior in Copper Thin Film Using Microtensile Testing. In T. Proulx (Ed.), MEMS and Nanotechnology, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (pp. 31–38). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, December 9). More American Grandparents Are Using Marijuana Than Ever Before. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Space Shuttle: NASA Must Reduce Costs Further to Operate Within Future Projected Funds (NSIAD-95-118). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weber, C. (2013). Exercise for older adults with dementia [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Landler, M. (2007, November 7). High-Priced Oil Adds Volatility To Global Scramble for Power. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Renne, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Fernandes & Desplan, 2015; Renne, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fernandes & Desplan, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Seibel et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Renault et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Tourism and Cultural Change
AbbreviationJ. Tour. Cult. Chang.
ISSN (print)1476-6825
ISSN (online)1747-7654
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development
Cultural Studies

Other styles