How to format your references using the Frontiers in Pharmacology of Ion Channels and Channelopathies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Pharmacology of Ion Channels and Channelopathies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bruins, H. J. (2010). Anthropology. Dating Pharaonic Egypt. Science 328, 1489–1490.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karpicke, J. D., and Blunt, J. R. (2011). Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping. Science 331, 772–775.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, M.-H., Wan, L.-Z., and Zhang, Y.-Q. (2014). A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material. Sci. Rep. 4, 4428.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ding, B., Soblosky, L., Nguyen, K., Geng, J., Yu, X., Ramamoorthy, A., et al. (2013). Physiologically-relevant modes of membrane interactions by the human antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, revealed by SFG experiments. Sci. Rep. 3, 1854.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ohshima, H. (2010). Biophysical Chemistry of Biointerfaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lal, R., Lorenz, K., Hüttl, R. F., Schneider, B. U., and von Braun, J. eds. (2012). Recarbonization of the Biosphere: Ecosystems and the Global Carbon Cycle. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaiser, M., and Simonotto, J. (2010). “Limited spreading: How hierarchical networks prevent the transition to the epileptic state,” in Modeling Phase Transitions in the Brain, eds. D. A. Steyn-Ross and M. Steyn-Ross (New York, NY: Springer), 99–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Pharmacology of Ion Channels and Channelopathies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Smart Artificial Skin Could Give Prosthetic Limbs Feeling. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). Federal Research: Minor Changes Would Further Improve New NSF Indirect Cost Guidance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meng, W. (2014). Synthesis and design of microwave wideband filters and components.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2016). Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times, MM30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bruins, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bruins, 2010; Karpicke and Blunt, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karpicke and Blunt, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ding et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Pharmacology of Ion Channels and Channelopathies
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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