How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin V. Crunch time for multiple-gene tests. Nature 2007;445:354–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meharg AA, Killham K. Environment: A pre-industrial source of dioxins and furans. Nature 2003;421:909–10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Loope DB, Rowe CM, Joeckel RM. Annual monsoon rains recorded by Jurassic dunes. Nature 2001;412:64–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mizutani A, Tamaki K, Ikuta R, Yamamoto T, Imoto N. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution for Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 04 protocol. Sci Rep 2014;4:5236.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zarbock G, Lynch S, Ammann A, Ringer S. Mindfulness for Therapists. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons Ltd 2014.
An edited book
Poprawe R, editor. Tailored Light 2: Laser Application Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Herson J, Buyse M, Wittes JT. On Stopping a Randomized Clinical Trial for Futility. In: Harrington D, ed. Designs for Clinical Trials: Perspectives on Current Issues. New York, NY: : Springer 2012. 109–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Genetics.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Moon Crater Gives Hints About The Dino Killer Impact. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Science Foundation: Better Use of Existing Resources Could Improve Program Administration. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia RI. Variable selection for models with missing data. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Winerip M, Schwirtz M, Gebeloff R. For Blacks Facing Parole, Signs of Broken System in New York. New York Times. 2016;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Genetics
AbbreviationJ. Med. Genet.
ISSN (print)0022-2593
ISSN (online)1468-6244

Other styles