How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Firestein S. How the olfactory system makes sense of scents. Nature 2001;413:211–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tierney JE, deMenocal PB. Abrupt shifts in Horn of Africa hydroclimate since the Last Glacial Maximum. Science 2013;342:843–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hillebrandt H, Friston KJ, Blakemore S-J. Effective connectivity during animacy perception--dynamic causal modelling of Human Connectome Project data. Sci Rep 2014;4:6240.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bakal C, Aach J, Church G, Perrimon N. Quantitative morphological signatures define local signaling networks regulating cell morphology. Science 2007;316:1753–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam MR, Speight JG. Peak Energy: Myth or Reality? Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2016.
An edited book
MacFarland TW. Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics for the Biological Sciences Using R. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Sobhani-Tehrani E, Khorasani K. Proposed FDII for Nonlinear Systems with Partial State Measurement. In: Khorasani K, ed. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using a Hybrid Approach. Boston, MA: : Springer US 2009. 71–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Genetics.

Blog post
Taub B. A Spider Has Been Seen Eating A Crayfish For The First Time. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. New Computer Was Not Needed for the St. Louis Computer Center. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foster RL. The Perceptions of Language Minority Parents Regarding Informed Consent in the Special Education Process. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. UPPER WEST SIDE. New York Times. 2001;:145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Genetics
AbbreviationJ. Med. Genet.
ISSN (print)0022-2593
ISSN (online)1468-6244

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