How to format your references using the Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D., 2009, “In Which We Say Goodbye,” Nature, 462(7269), p. 25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, V. J., and Lekkerkerker, H. N. W., 2002, “Insights into Phase Transition Kinetics from Colloid Science,” Nature, 416(6883), pp. 811–815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue, M., Atallah, B. V., and Scanziani, M., 2014, “Equalizing Excitation-Inhibition Ratios across Visual Cortical Neurons,” Nature, 511(7511), pp. 596–600.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu, F.-X., Wu, L., Wang, J., Liu, J., and Chen, L., 2014, “Transittability of Complex Networks and Its Applications to Regulatory Biomolecular Networks,” Sci. Rep., 4, p. 4819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCrary, S. A., 2010, Mastering Corporate Finance Essentials, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kranzlmüller, D., and Toja, A. M., eds., 2011, Information and Communication on Technology for the Fight against Global Warming: First International Conference, ICT-GLOW 2011, Toulouse, France, August 30-31, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Khanna, A. K., and Farag, E., 2015, “Anesthesia for Spine Osteotomy Surgery,” Spinal Osteotomy, Y. Wang, O. Boachie-Adjei, and L. Lenke, eds., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 37–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016, “Mammals Took Over The World Remarkably Quickly After The Dinosaurs Bit The Dust,” IFLScience [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999, Commercial Maritime Industry: Updated Information on Federal Assessments, T-RCED-00-36, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scott, E., 2013, “Effects of Cultural Nutritional Education among Hispanic Women with Diabetes,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M., 2017, “Kelly Presses Conspiracy Theorist in Edited Interview,” New York Times, p. B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Mechanisms and Robotics
AbbreviationJ. Mech. Robot.
ISSN (print)1942-4302
ISSN (online)1942-4310
ScopeMechanical Engineering

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