How to format your references using the Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D., 2000, “Are Mega-Mergers Good Medicine for the Pharmaceutical Industry?,” Nature, 405(6783), pp. 257–258.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiang, P., and Beauchamp, G. K., 2014, “Evolution. Sensing Nectar’s Sweetness,” Science, 345(6199), pp. 878–879.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Connor, J. E., Duda, J. J., and Grant, G. E., 2015, “Ecology. 1000 Dams down and Counting,” Science, 348(6234), pp. 496–497.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bouzat, C., Gumilar, F., Spitzmaul, G., Wang, H.-L., Rayes, D., Hansen, S. B., Taylor, P., and Sine, S. M., 2004, “Coupling of Agonist Binding to Channel Gating in an ACh-Binding Protein Linked to an Ion Channel,” Nature, 430(7002), pp. 896–900.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray, D. R. J. M., and Al-Ani, D. M. Z., 2011, Temporomandibular Disorders, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Davidson, M. H., Toth, P. P., Maki, K. C., and Gotto, A. M., eds., 2007, Therapeutic Lipidology, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Oshchepkov, A., 2015, “Compensating Wage Differentials Across Russian Regions,” Geographical Labor Market Imbalances: Recent Explanations and Cures, C. Mussida, and F. Pastore, eds., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 65–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, “Therapy Dogs Are Helping Kids With Cancer,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006, Offshoring: U.S. Semiconductor and Software Industries Increasingly Produce in China and India, GAO-06-423, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wen, J., 2012, “Moving Office Document Processing into the Cloud,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Macfarlane, I., 1906, “Wordsworth,” New York Times, p. RECIEW OF BOOKSBR166.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Mechanisms and Robotics
AbbreviationJ. Mech. Robot.
ISSN (print)1942-4302
ISSN (online)1942-4310
ScopeMechanical Engineering

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