How to format your references using the Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2003, “Experience Counts,” Nature, 424(6952), p. 1089.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacob, Y., and Martienssen, R., 2012, “Molecular Biology. All Packed up and Ready to Go,” Science, 336(6087), pp. 1391–1392.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schneider, T., Bischoff, T., and Haug, G. H., 2014, “Migrations and Dynamics of the Intertropical Convergence Zone,” Nature, 513(7516), pp. 45–53.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sieh, K., Natawidjaja, D. H., Meltzner, A. J., Shen, C.-C., Cheng, H., Li, K.-S., Suwargadi, B. W., Galetzka, J., Philibosian, B., and Edwards, R. L., 2008, “Earthquake Supercycles Inferred from Sea-Level Changes Recorded in the Corals of West Sumatra,” Science, 322(5908), pp. 1674–1678.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edelstein, L. N., and Waehler, C. A., 2011, What Do I Say?, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Adams, J. C., 2009, The Fortran 2003 Handbook: The Complete Syntax, Features and Procedures, Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Delang, C. O., and Li, W. M., 2013, “Species Composition,” Ecological Succession on Fallowed Shifting Cultivation Fields: A Review of the Literature, W.M. Li, ed., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 67–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, “New Lock-And-Key Technology Promises Rapid Cancer Testing for Developing World,” IFLScience [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987, Compensatory Education: Chapter 1 Participants Generally Meet Selection Criteria, HRD-87-26, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, M. P., 2009, “De La Página a La Pantalla: Memoria de La Guerra Civil Española En La Narrativa Contemporánea,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES, 2017, “Early Spring Flowers,” New York Times, p. RE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Mechanisms and Robotics
AbbreviationJ. Mech. Robot.
ISSN (print)1942-4302
ISSN (online)1942-4310
ScopeMechanical Engineering

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