How to format your references using the Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holland DM (2001) Explaining the Weddell Polynya--a large ocean eddy shed at Maud Rise. Science 292:1697–1700
A journal article with 2 authors
Stein S, Okal EA (2005) Seismology: speed and size of the Sumatra earthquake. Nature 434:581–582
A journal article with 3 authors
Hornbach MJ, Saffer DM, Holbrook WS (2004) Critically pressured free-gas reservoirs below gas-hydrate provinces. Nature 427:142–144
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ligi M, Bonatti E, Cuffaro M, Brunelli D (2013) Post-mesozoic rapid increase of seawater Mg/Ca due to enhanced mantle-seawater interaction. Sci Rep 3:2752

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fortey RA, Bruton DL (2013) Lower Ordovician Trilobites of the Kirtonryggen Formation, Spitsbergen. The Lethaia Foundation, Norway
An edited book
ten Cate B, Mileo A (2015) Web Reasoning and Rule Systems: 9th International Conference, RR 2015, Berlin, Germany, August 4-5, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Grill E, Mishra S, Srivastava S, Tripathi RD (2007) Role of Phytochelatins in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals. In: Singh SN, Tripathi RD (eds) Environmental Bioremediation Technologies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 101–146

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Scientists May Have Finally Figured Out Who Is The Best Superhero. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974) The Cost Of Aerospace Ground Equipment Could Be Reduced. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alderson M (2017) Procedural Justice and Police Encounters with Homeless Injecting Drug Users. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lyman R (2017) Polish Parliament Acts to Upend Nation’s Courts. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
AbbreviationJ. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag.
ISSN (print)1438-4957
ISSN (online)1611-8227
ScopeMechanics of Materials
Waste Management and Disposal

Other styles