How to format your references using the Journal of Marine and Island Cultures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Marine and Island Cultures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hughes, V., 2012. Public health: Where there’s smoke. Nature 489, S18-20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krishnamurthy, H., Gouaux, E., 2012. X-ray structures of LeuT in substrate-free outward-open and apo inward-open states. Nature 481, 469–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sweeney, A., Jiggins, C., Johnsen, S., 2003. Insect communication: Polarized light as a butterfly mating signal. Nature 423, 31–32.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wilson, A.M., Hubel, T.Y., Wilshin, S.D., Lowe, J.C., Lorenc, M., Dewhirst, O.P., Bartlam-Brooks, H.L.A., Diack, R., Bennitt, E., Golabek, K.A., Woledge, R.C., McNutt, J.W., Curtin, N.A., West, T.G., 2018. Biomechanics of predator-prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala. Nature 554, 183–188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crane, S., 2013. Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Dao. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Fratzl, P. (Ed.), 2008. Collagen: Structure and Mechanics. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Brambilla, M., Ceri, S., Valle, E.D., Facca, F.M., Tziviskou, C., 2009. A Software Engineering Approach based on WebML and BPMN to the Mediation Scenario of the SWS Challenge, in: Petrie, C., Margaria, T., Lausen, H., Zaremba, M. (Eds.), Semantic Web Services Challenge: Results from the First Year, Semantic Web And Beyond. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 51–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Marine and Island Cultures.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2016. New Protection For Rosewood, The World’s Most Trafficked Wild Item [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Strategic Sourcing: Improved and Expanded Use Could Provide Procurement Savings for Federal Information Technology (No. GAO-13-408T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guarin, Y., 2017. A Postpartum Support Group for Women Experiencing Postpartum Depression: A Grant Proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. Judge Reinstates Suit Over Rolling Stone Rape Article. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hughes, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hughes, 2012; Krishnamurthy and Gouaux, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krishnamurthy and Gouaux, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Wilson et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Marine and Island Cultures
AbbreviationJ. Mar. Isl. Cult.
ISSN (print)2212-6821

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