How to format your references using the Journal of Low Temperature Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Low Temperature Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. T. Lingham-Soliar, Science 346, 434 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. E. J. van Opstal and S. R. Bordenstein, Science 349, 1172 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. T. Muraoka, K. Kinbara, and T. Aida, Nature 440, 512 (2006).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. L.-M. Lu, L.-F. Mao, T. Yang, J.-F. Ye, B. Liu, H.-L. Li, M. Sun, J. T. Miller, S. Mathews, H.-H. Hu, Y.-T. Niu, D.-X. Peng, Y.-H. Chen, S. A. Smith, M. Chen, K.-L. Xiang, C.-T. Le, V.-C. Dang, A.-M. Lu, P. S. Soltis, D. E. Soltis, J.-H. Li, and Z.-D. Chen, Nature 554, 234 (2018).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. I. W. Halbich, Cape Fold Belt‐Agulhas Bank Transect Across Gondwana Suture, Southern Africa (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C., 1993), p. 46.
An edited book
1. R. Caminiti and L. Gontrani, editors , The Structure of Ionic Liquids (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014).
A chapter in an edited book
1. E. Layer and K. Tomczyk, in Measurements, Modelling and Simulation of Dynamic Systems, edited by K. Tomczyk (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010), pp. 83–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Low Temperature Physics.

Blog post
1. E. Andrew, IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, Passenger Rail Security: Consistent Incident Reporting and Analysis Needed to Achieve Program Objectives (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. I. Ringler, Values Satisfaction and Participation in a Community Leadership Program: A Case Study, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. K. Crouse, New York Times B11 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Low Temperature Physics
AbbreviationJ. Low Temp. Phys.
ISSN (print)0022-2291
ISSN (online)1573-7357
ScopeGeneral Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles