How to format your references using the Frontiers in Stroke citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Stroke. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Markl, H. (2001). Research doesn’t denigrate humanity. Nature 412, 479–480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Callan, B., and Gillespie, I. (2007). The path to new medicines. Nature 449, 164–165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mishra, L., Derynck, R., and Mishra, B. (2005). Transforming growth factor-beta signaling in stem cells and cancer. Science 310, 68–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gupta, A. K., Mohan, K., Das, M., and Singh, R. K. (2013). Solar forcing of the Indian summer monsoon variability during the Ållerød period. Sci. Rep. 3, 2753.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sundar, V. (2015). Ocean Wave Mechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ruttkay, Z., Kipp, M., Nijholt, A., and Vilhjálmsson, H. H. eds. (2009). Intelligent Virtual Agents: 9th International Conference, IVA 2009 Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 14-16, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hug, V. (2015). “Business Case for EV Charging on the Motorway Network in Denmark,” in Electric Vehicle Business Models: Global Perspectives Lecture Notes in Mobility., eds. D. Beeton and G. Meyer (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 67–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Stroke.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). The Netherlands’ Railway Aims To Run On 100% Wind Power By 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015). NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects [Reissued on March 26, 2015]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chon, J. Y. (2012). Coping as a mediator of the relation between teacher perceived stress and teacher-student relationships.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2009). My Other Job, Crazy as It Is, Keeps Me Sane. New York Times, BU2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Markl, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Markl, 2001; Callan and Gillespie, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Callan and Gillespie, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Gupta et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Stroke
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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