How to format your references using the Frontiers in Stroke citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Stroke. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bjorn, G. (2008). Ready, set, hire. Nature 451, 740–741.
A journal article with 2 authors
Iwao, C., and Shidoji, Y. (2014). Induction of nuclear translocation of mutant cytoplasmic p53 by geranylgeranoic acid in a human hepatoma cell line. Sci. Rep. 4, 4419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lim, H. S., Rim, Y. S., and Kim, H. J. (2014). Photoresist-free fully self-patterned transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistors obtained by sol-gel process. Sci. Rep. 4, 4544.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kubo, A., Ishizaki, I., Kubo, A., Kawasaki, H., Nagao, K., Ohashi, Y., et al. (2013). The stratum corneum comprises three layers with distinct metal-ion barrier properties. Sci. Rep. 3, 1731.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (1996). Guidelines for Use of Vapor Cloud Dispersion Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Campion, J., and Rousseaux, X. eds. (2016). Policing New Risks in Modern European History. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Gaudioso, V. (2010). “Timed Storyboards: Creating a Newton Cradle Application,” in Foundation Expression Blend 4 with Silverlight, eds. T. Brown, B. Renow-Clarke, C. Collins, C. Andres, S. Anglin, M. Beckner, et al. (Berkeley, CA: Apress), 95–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Stroke.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Turning The Tables: Using Genetic Mutations To Fix Nature’s Problems. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). Athletic Department Profiles. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ithier-Guzman, W. (2010). Assessing the ability of soils and sediment to adsorb and retain cesium-137 in Puerto Rico.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2015). When Radiation Isn’t the Risk. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bjorn, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Bjorn, 2008; Iwao and Shidoji, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Iwao and Shidoji, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kubo et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Stroke
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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