How to format your references using the Frontiers in Stroke citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Stroke. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leith, W. (2004). Geology. Building for earthquakes. Science 304, 1604.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouchon, M., and Vallée, M. (2003). Observation of long supershear rupture during the magnitude 8.1 Kunlunshan earthquake. Science 301, 824–826.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ergon, T., Lambin, X., and Stenseth, N. C. (2001). Life-history traits of voles in a fluctuating population respond to the immediate environment. Nature 411, 1043–1045.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang, Z., Lan, Y., Chai, Y., and Jiang, R. (2009). Antagonistic actions of Msx1 and Osr2 pattern mammalian teeth into a single row. Science 323, 1232–1234.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, T. J. (2015). The Value of Debt in Retirement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dodero, J. M., Palomo-Duarte, M., and Karampiperis, P. eds. (2012). Metadata and Semantics Research: 6th Research Conference, MTSR 2012, Cádiz, Spain, November 28-30, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cauduro, A., Nicola, A. D., Fonio, C., Nuvoloni, A., and Ruspini, P. (2009). “Innocent When You Dream Clients and Trafficked Women in Italy,” in Prostitution and Human Trafficking: Focus on Clients, eds. A. D. Nicola, A. Cauduro, M. Lombardi, and P. Ruspini (New York, NY: Springer), 31–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Stroke.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Teenage Quasar Tries to Hide in its Galactic Room. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987). Federal Research: Effectiveness of Small Business Innovation Research Program Procedures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crawford, J. D. (2017). Teacher Job Satisfaction as Related to Student Performance on State-Mandated Testing.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Reinhart, M. K. (2015). High-Profile Union Ends Abruptly. New York Times, ST14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leith, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bouchon and Vallée, 2003; Leith, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bouchon and Vallée, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Stroke
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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