How to format your references using the Frontiers in Stroke citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Stroke. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Borniger, J. C. (2015). Leaping into the unknown. Science 350, 882.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maxfield, F. R., and Tabas, I. (2005). Role of cholesterol and lipid organization in disease. Nature 438, 612–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mercader, J., Panger, M., and Boesch, C. (2002). Excavation of a chimpanzee stone tool site in the African rainforest. Science 296, 1452–1455.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Da Costa Dias, B., Jovanovic, K., Gonsalves, D., Moodley, K., Reusch, U., Knackmuss, S., et al. (2014). The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor acts as a receptor for Aβ42 internalization. Sci. Rep. 4, 5556.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riegel, M., Kroeselberg, D., Chindapol, A., and Premec, D. (2009). Deploying Mobile WiMAX. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hakeem, K. R. ed. (2015). Crop Production and Global Environmental Issues. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Nicholson, A., and Jankowski, J. (2011). “Acid Reflux and Oesophageal Cancer,” in Inflammation and Gastrointestinal Cancers Recent Results in Cancer Research., ed. J. A. Z. Jankowski (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 65–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Stroke.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Curiosity Activates Brain To Boost Learning Experience. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984). U.S. Objectives Generally Achieved at Broadcasting Satellite International Conference--Improvements Can Help in Future Conferences. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darvish, H. (2015). Smart Power Grid Synchronization with Nonlinear Estimation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2016). Puerto Rico Asks for Help, With Creditors in Pursuit. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Borniger, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Borniger, 2015, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maxfield and Tabas, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Da Costa Dias et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Stroke
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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