How to format your references using the Frontiers in Stroke citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Stroke. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Korte, M. (2009). Neuroscience. Bridging the gap and staying local. Science 324, 1527–1528.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mougi, A., and Kondoh, M. (2012). Diversity of interaction types and ecological community stability. Science 337, 349–351.
A journal article with 3 authors
Loeffler, J. M., Nelson, D., and Fischetti, V. A. (2001). Rapid killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae with a bacteriophage cell wall hydrolase. Science 294, 2170–2172.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Qiu, X., Audet, J., Wong, G., Fernando, L., Bello, A., Pillet, S., et al. (2013). Sustained protection against Ebola virus infection following treatment of infected nonhuman primates with ZMAb. Sci. Rep. 3, 3365.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (2008). Guidelines for Chemical Transportation Safety, Security, and Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vaclavik, V. A. (2014). Essentials of Food Science. 4th ed. 2014. , ed. E. W. Christian New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wilson, T. L., Rohlfs, K., and Hüttemeister, S. (2009). “Practical Receiver Systems,” in Tools of Radio Astronomy Astronomy and Astrophysics Library., eds. K. Rohlfs and S. Hüttemeister (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 79–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Stroke.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). Study Shows Dogs Have Episodic Memory, Just Like Humans. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Gulf War Illnesses: Preliminary Assessment of DOD Plume Modeling for U.S. Troops’ Exposure to Chemical Agents. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graham, H. H. (2010). Leadership as co-influencing: A heuristic narrative study of dynamic co-emergence within the leadership relationship.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Van Gelder, S. K. C. by L. (2005). Arts, Briefly; Coppola and Putin Meet. New York Times, E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Korte, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Korte, 2009; Mougi and Kondoh, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mougi and Kondoh, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Qiu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Stroke
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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