How to format your references using the Frontiers in Stroke citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Stroke. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kondro, W. (2000). CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES: Funding of 2000 Slots Sets Off Musical Chairs. Science 288, 2112.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baldwin, A. J., and Kay, L. E. (2012). Structural biology: Dynamic binding. Nature 488, 165–166.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martinez-Mateo, J., Elkouss, D., and Martin, V. (2013). Key reconciliation for high performance quantum key distribution. Sci. Rep. 3, 1576.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yang, Z.-Y., Kong, W.-P., Huang, Y., Roberts, A., Murphy, B. R., Subbarao, K., et al. (2004). A DNA vaccine induces SARS coronavirus neutralization and protective immunity in mice. Nature 428, 561–564.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Banerjee, S., and Lawrence, V. (2010). Managing Dementia in a Multicultural Society. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Seckbach, J., and Walsh, M. eds. (2008). From Fossils to Astrobiology: Records of Life on Earth and Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kao, Y., and Chen, M. (2013). “Solving the CVRP Problem Using a Hybrid PSO Approach,” in Computational Intelligence: Revised and Selected Papers of the International Joint Conference, IJCCI 2011, Paris, France, October 24-26, 2011 Studies in Computational Intelligence., eds. K. Madani, A. Dourado, A. Rosa, and J. Filipe (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 59–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Stroke.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). After Kepler, What Is Next For The Planet Hunters? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). High-Risk Series: Student Financial Aid. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham, E. D. (2015). A mental health community outreach and education program for Nigerian immigrants: A grant writing project.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hogan, S. (2013). How I Found Love and Companionship Online. New York Times, ST12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kondro, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Baldwin and Kay, 2012; Kondro, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baldwin and Kay, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Stroke
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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