How to format your references using the Frontiers in Stroke citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Stroke. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hartwig, J. F. (2008). Carbon-heteroatom bond formation catalysed by organometallic complexes. Nature 455, 314–322.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaupel, J. W., and Loichinger, E. (2006). Redistributing work in aging Europe. Science 312, 1911–1913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eagle, N., Macy, M., and Claxton, R. (2010). Network diversity and economic development. Science 328, 1029–1031.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li, F., Li, W., Farzan, M., and Harrison, S. C. (2005). Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor. Science 309, 1864–1868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Micouin, P. (2014). Model-Based Systems Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Joshi, K., Siegle, M., Stoelinga, M., and D’Argenio, P. R. eds. (2013). Quantitative Evaluation of Systems: 10th International Conference, QEST 2013, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 27-30, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Du, Y., Wang, X., and Yao, J. (2012). “Probability Based Timed Compatibility of Web Service Composition,” in Practical Applications of Intelligent Systems: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, Shanghai, China, Dec 2011 (ISKE2011) Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing., eds. Y. Wang and T. Li (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 31–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Stroke.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). Calories Burnt By Teenagers Drops Suddenly During Puberty, And May Explain Increase In Obesity. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). Small Business Administration: Better Planning and Controls Needed for Information Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cuellar, D. (2011). Impact of boring insects on the reproductive success of Hesperoyucca whipplei (Our Lord’s candle).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R. (2017). U.S. Military Says It Shot Down Drone That Attacked American Allies in Syria. New York Times, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hartwig, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Vaupel and Loichinger, 2006; Hartwig, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vaupel and Loichinger, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Stroke
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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