How to format your references using the BMC Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Neuroscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cohen J. Strategies against HIV/AIDS. Australia shows its neighbors how to stem an epidemic. Introduction. Science. 2014;345:152–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Burns CG, Burns CE. Development. A crowning achievement for deciphering coronary origins. Science. 2014;345:28–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pfeifer R, Lungarella M, Iida F. Self-organization, embodiment, and biologically inspired robotics. Science. 2007;318:1088–93.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bendkowsky V, Butscher B, Nipper J, Shaffer JP, Löw R, Pfau T. Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules. Nature. 2009;458:1005–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Weinberg S. Cost-Contained Regulatory Compliance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Saito K, Ito A, Nakamura Y, Kuwana K, editors. Progress in Scale Modeling, Volume II: Selections from the International Symposia on Scale Modeling, ISSM VI (2009) and ISSM VII (2013). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lavatelli F, Palladini G, Merlini G. Pathogenesis of Systemic Amyloidoses. In: Gertz MA, Rajkumar SV, editors. Amyloidosis: Diagnosis and Treatment. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2010. p. 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Neuroscience.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Hungry Bats Jam Each Other’s Sonar Signals. IFLScience. 2014. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: Planning for Pilot Test of New Procurement Procedures Is Adequate. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. McKenzie RA. A correlational study of servant leadership and teacher job satisfaction in a public education institution. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Murphy MJO. A Paris Changed by Turmoil, a Century Ago. New York Times. 2015;:C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Neuroscience
AbbreviationBMC Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1471-2202
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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