How to format your references using the Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greensfelder, L. INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Polio Outbreak Raises Questions About Vaccine. Science 2000, 290, 1867b–9b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schulz, H.N.; Schulz, H.D. Large sulfur bacteria and the formation of phosphorite. Science 2005, 307, 416–418.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stanley, J.D.; Goddio, F.; Schnepp, G. Nile flooding sank two ancient cities. Nature 2001, 412, 293–294.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Le Masson, G.; Renaud-Le Masson, S.; Debay, D.; Bal, T. Feedback inhibition controls spike transfer in hybrid thalamic circuits. Nature 2002, 417, 854–858.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheringer, M. Persistence and Spatial Range of Environmental Chemicals; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2002; ISBN 9783527607464.
An edited book
Wireless Networks and Security: Issues, Challenges and Research Trends; Khan, S., Khan Pathan, A.-S., Eds.; Signals and Communication Technology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; ISBN 9783642361685.
A chapter in an edited book
de Jong, P.T.V.M. Cataract, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Risk Factors. In Ophthalmology and the Ageing Society; Scholl, H.P.N., Massof, R.W., West, S., Eds.; Essentials in Ophthalmology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 33–55 ISBN 9783642363238.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Cosmic Inflation Claims Take a Hit Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Regulatory Policies; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zellner, K.M. An examination of grade distribution patterns and grade inflation at a baccalaureate nursing program. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. Reminiscing About a Woman With Quirks as Well as Causes. New York Times 2002, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Low Power Electronics and Applications
ISSN (online)2079-9268

Other styles