How to format your references using the Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kulmala, M. Atmospheric Chemistry: China’s Choking Cocktail. Nature 2015, 526, 497–499.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fu, H.; Cohen, R.E. Polarization Rotation Mechanism for Ultrahigh Electromechanical Response in Single-Crystal Piezoelectrics. Nature 2000, 403, 281–283.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yuan, F.; Depew, R.; Soltis-Muth, C. Ecosystem Regime Change Inferred from the Distribution of Trace Metals in Lake Erie Sediments. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7265.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Knight, J.M.; Davidson, L.A.; Herman, D.; Martin, C.R.; Goldsby, J.S.; Ivanov, I.V.; Donovan, S.M.; Chapkin, R.S. Non-Invasive Analysis of Intestinal Development in Preterm and Term Infants Using RNA-Sequencing. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5453.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) Supplemental Proceedings; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118062173.
An edited book
Ribes, R. Learning Musculoskeletal Imaging; Vilanova, J.C., Ed.; Learning Imaging; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; ISBN 9783540879992.
A chapter in an edited book
Neber, H.; Neuhaus, B.J. Creativity and Problem-Based Learning (PBL): A Neglected Relation. In Creativity, Talent and Excellence; Tan, A.-G., Ed.; Springer: Singapore, 2013; pp. 43–56 ISBN 9789814021920.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Dark Gamma Ray Bursts Obscured By Dust Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Research: Small Business Innovation Research Program Shows Success But Could Be Strengthened; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Templeton, T.H. The Impact of Emergent Information and Communication Technology on Peacebuilding. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alexander, K. What Should I Stop Buying and Make Instead? New York Times 2011, MM48.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Low Power Electronics and Applications
ISSN (online)2079-9268

Other styles