How to format your references using the Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Astudillo Besnier, P. Chile Needs Better Science Governance and Support. Nature 2014, 511, 385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fossum, A.; Carlsson, M. High-Frequency Acoustic Waves Are Not Sufficient to Heat the Solar Chromosphere. Nature 2005, 435, 919–921.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lönnstedt, O.M.; McCormick, M.I.; Chivers, D.P. Predator-Induced Changes in the Growth of Eyes and False Eyespots. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2259.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, C.; Wei, X.; Marhic, M.E.; Wong, K.K.Y. Ultrafast and Versatile Spectroscopy by Temporal Fourier Transform. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5351.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gleeson, K. The Personal Efficiency Program; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2008; ISBN 9781118256237.
An edited book
Mars: Prospective Energy and Material Resources; Badescu, V., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; ISBN 9783642036286.
A chapter in an edited book
Munier, F.L.; Schorderet, D.F. Classification of Corneal Dystrophies on a Molecular Genetic Basis. In Cornea and External Eye Disease; Reinhard, T., Larkin, F., Eds.; Essentials in Ophthalmology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 83–100 ISBN 9783540336808.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E. What Would Happen If You Touched A Black Hole? (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Must Be Taken Now to Address Slow Pace of Federal Progress; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, X. Graph-Based Learning for Information Systems. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaminer, A.; Southall, A. Baruch College Student Dies After Fraternity Ritual in Poconos. New York Times 2013, A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Low Power Electronics and Applications
ISSN (online)2079-9268

Other styles