How to format your references using the Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. A question of gender. Nature 2003, 426, 209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bintanja, R.; van der Linden, E.C. The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1556.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reddien, P.W.; Cameron, S.; Horvitz, H.R. Phagocytosis promotes programmed cell death in C. elegans. Nature 2001, 412, 198–202.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gachet, Y.; Tournier, S.; Millar, J.B.; Hyams, J.S. A MAP kinase-dependent actin checkpoint ensures proper spindle orientation in fission yeast. Nature 2001, 412, 352–355.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lau, V.K.N.; Ricky Kwok, Y.-K. Channel-Adaptive Technologies and Cross-Layer Designs for Wireless Systems with Multiple Antennas; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2006; ISBN 9780471774068.
An edited book
Aspects of Physical Biology: Biological Water, Protein Solutions, Transport and Replication; Franzese, G., Rubi, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Physics; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; Vol. 752; ISBN 9783540787648.
A chapter in an edited book
Sekine, Y. Informed Consent. In Double-Balloon Endoscopy: Theory and Practice; Sugano, K., Yamamoto, H., Kita, H., Eds.; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2006; pp. 15–18 ISBN 9784431342045.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Neanderthals confirmed to have buried their dead Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Examination Into Possible Irregularities in the Use of Federal Funds in the Administration of the Chemawa Indian School in Marion County, Oregon]; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1972;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, F. A historical analysis of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the United States. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Supreme Court to Weigh Award in a Smoker’s Death. New York Times 2006, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Low Power Electronics and Applications
ISSN (online)2079-9268

Other styles