How to format your references using the Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx, V. Neurobiology: Brain Mapping in High Resolution. Nature 2013, 503, 147–152.
A journal article with 2 authors
y Arcas, B.A.; Fairhall, A. Archaeology of Type. Nature 2001, 411, 997.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stott, L.; Timmermann, A.; Thunell, R. Southern Hemisphere and Deep-Sea Warming Led Deglacial Atmospheric CO2 Rise and Tropical Warming. Science 2007, 318, 435–438.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ostoja Starzewski, K.A.; Younkin, T.R.; Connor, E.F.; Henderson, J.I.; Friedrich, S.K.; Grubbs, R.H.; Bansleben, D.A. Scope of Olefin Polymerization Nickel Catalysts. Science 2000, 288, 1749–1751.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kovalev, V.A. Solutions in Lidar Profiling of the Atmosphere; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781118963296.
An edited book
The Handbook of Office Urological Procedures; Hashim, H., Abrams, P., Dmochowski, R., Eds.; Springer: London, 2008; ISBN 9781846285233.
A chapter in an edited book
Maurya, S.; Daniel, A.K. RBHR: Region-Based Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using AI Technique. In Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving: SocProS 2014, Volume 2; Das, K.N., Deep, K., Pant, M., Bansal, J.C., Nagar, A., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer India: New Delhi, 2015; pp. 37–52 ISBN 9788132222194.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Solar Superflares Might Be Responsible For Life On Earth Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Issues That Need to Be Considered in Formulating Strategies to Reduce Aviation Noise; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, B. Bullying of Individuals with Disabilities on a College Campus: A Qualitative Study. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. Kershaw Could Be Out as Long as Six Weeks. New York Times 2017, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Low Power Electronics and Applications
ISSN (online)2079-9268

Other styles