How to format your references using the Frontiers in Digital Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Digital Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McLeod, H. L. (2013). Cancer pharmacogenomics: early promise, but concerted effort needed. Science 339, 1563–1566.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sullenger, B. A., and Gilboa, E. (2002). Emerging clinical applications of RNA. Nature 418, 252–258.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, C., Linde, A. T., and Sacks, I. S. (2009). Slow earthquakes triggered by typhoons. Nature 459, 833–836.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Luchtmann, M., Beuing, O., Skalej, M., Kohl, J., Serowy, S., Bernarding, J., et al. (2014). Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in brain death. Sci. Rep. 4, 3659.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sengupta, D. L., and Liepa, V. V. (2005). Applied Electromagnetics and Electromagnetic Compatibility. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Louis, E. J., and Becker, M. M. eds. (2014). Subtelomeres. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chalopin, J., Godard, E., and Métivier, Y. (2008). “Local Terminations and Distributed Computability in Anonymous Networks,” in Distributed Computing: 22nd International Symposium, DISC 2008, Arcachon, France, September 22-24, 2008. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., ed. G. Taubenfeld (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 47–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Digital Humanities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Perseid Meteor Shower Peaks on August 12. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978). The Johnstown Area Flood of 1977: A Case Study for the Future. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vargas, A. R. (2010). Implementing modern geographic technology in the trucking industry: A case study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Creswell, J., and de la MERCED, M. J. (2017). Activist Investor Seeks Seat at Procter & Gamble. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McLeod, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Sullenger and Gilboa, 2002; McLeod, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sullenger and Gilboa, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Luchtmann et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Digital Humanities
AbbreviationFront. Digit. Humanit.
ISSN (online)2297-2668

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