How to format your references using the Frontiers in Digital Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Digital Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyer, G. (2015). Playing the field. Science 348, 938.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yu, J., and Broecker, W. S. (2010). Comment on “Deep-sea temperature and ice volume changes across the Pliocene-Pleistocene climate transitions.” Science 328, 1480; author reply 1480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elias, L. A. B., Wang, D. D., and Kriegstein, A. R. (2007). Gap junction adhesion is necessary for radial migration in the neocortex. Nature 448, 901–907.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pawlowski, W. P., Golubovskaya, I. N., Timofejeva, L., Meeley, R. B., Sheridan, W. F., and Cande, W. Z. (2004). Coordination of meiotic recombination, pairing, and synapsis by PHS1. Science 303, 89–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott, D. M. (2009). World Wide Rave. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kolvekar, S., and Pilegaard, H. eds. (2016). Chest Wall Deformities and Corrective Procedures. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sonobe, T., Suenaga, K., and Igarashi, A. (2014). “Automatic Memory Management Based on Program Transformation Using Ownership,” in Programming Languages and Systems: 12th Asian Symposium, APLAS 2014, Singapore, Singapore, November 17-19, 2014, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., ed. J. Garrigue (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 58–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Digital Humanities.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Group Files Lawsuit Against Kansas For Teaching Science In Science Class. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016). Credit Programs: Key Agencies Should Better Document Procedures for Estimating Subsidy Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, K. (2014). The lexicographic treatment of color terms.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2017). Funny, but Not Funny Enough for The New Yorker. New York Times, C17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meyer, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Meyer, 2015; Yu and Broecker, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yu and Broecker, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Pawlowski et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Digital Humanities
AbbreviationFront. Digit. Humanit.
ISSN (online)2297-2668

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