How to format your references using the Frontiers in Digital Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Digital Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benner, S. A. (2004). Chemistry. Redesigning genetics. Science 306, 625–626.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raes, F., and Swart, R. (2007). Climate change. Climate assessment: what’s next? Science 318, 1386.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakurai, H., Daiko, T., and Hirao, T. (2003). A synthesis of sumanene, a fullerene fragment. Science 301, 1878.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ruban, A. V., Wentworth, M., Yakushevska, A. E., Andersson, J., Lee, P. J., Keegstra, W., et al. (2003). Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization. Nature 421, 648–652.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burgess, M. (2005). Analytical Network and System Administration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Golland, P., Hata, N., Barillot, C., Hornegger, J., and Howe, R. eds. (2014). Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2014: 17th International Conference, Boston, MA, USA, September 14-18, 2014, Proceedings, Part III. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
De Sanctis, L., and Franz, S. (2009). “Self-averaging Identities for Random Spin Systems,” in Spin Glasses: Statics and Dynamics: Summer School, Paris 2007, eds. A. B. de Monvel and A. Bovier (Basel: Birkhäuser), 123–142.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Digital Humanities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Beyond Pluto: New Horizons’ Mission Is Not Over Yet. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973). Improvements Needed in NASA’s Estimating and Reporting of Program Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zohourian, M. (2015). Supply Chain Decision Making Under Demand Uncertainty and the Use of Control Systems: A Correlational Study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2010). The Accidental Mom. New York Times, BR23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benner, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Benner, 2004; Raes and Swart, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raes and Swart, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Ruban et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Digital Humanities
AbbreviationFront. Digit. Humanit.
ISSN (online)2297-2668

Other styles