How to format your references using the Frontiers in Digital Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Digital Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. (2004). Cell signalling: making connections. Nature 432, 243–249.
A journal article with 2 authors
Després, J.-P., and Lemieux, I. (2006). Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nature 444, 881–887.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hubbell, J. A., Thomas, S. N., and Swartz, M. A. (2009). Materials engineering for immunomodulation. Nature 462, 449–460.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Norris, D. R., Marra, P. P., Montgomerie, R., Kyser, T. K., and Ratcliffe, L. M. (2004). Reproductive effort, molting latitude, and feather color in a migratory songbird. Science 306, 2249–2250.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jain, R. K., Triandis, H. C., and Weick, C. W. (2010). Managing Research, Development, and Innovation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cognetta, A. B., Jr., and Mendenhall, W. M. eds. (2013). Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Razzaghi, M. (2015). “Hybrid Functions Approach for Variational Problems and Optimal Control of Delay Systems,” in Control and Systems Engineering: A Report on Four Decades of Contributions Studies in Systems, Decision and Control., eds. A. El-Osery and J. Prevost (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 67–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Digital Humanities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). How Nuclear Power-Generating Reactors Have Evolved Since Their Birth In The 1950s. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978). The Proper Use of Consultants, Experts, and Contractors. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salinsky, J. L. (2012). Local disaster preparedness for the disabled population: Are we ready?

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017). Pro Football; Jets Sign McCown. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon, 2004; Després and Lemieux, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Després and Lemieux, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Norris et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Digital Humanities
AbbreviationFront. Digit. Humanit.
ISSN (online)2297-2668

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