How to format your references using the Frontiers in Digital Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Digital Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stratton, M. R. (2011). Exploring the genomes of cancer cells: progress and promise. Science 331, 1553–1558.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davis, S. J., and Shearer, C. (2014). Climate change: A crack in the natural-gas bridge. Nature 514, 436–437.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lebrun, E. G., Jones, N. T., and Gilbert, L. E. (2014). Chemical warfare among invaders: a detoxification interaction facilitates an ant invasion. Science 343, 1014–1017.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nakano, H., Hibino, T., Oji, T., Hara, Y., and Amemiya, S. (2003). Larval stages of a living sea lily (stalked crinoid echinoderm). Nature 421, 158–160.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wassenaar, T. M. (2011). Bacteria. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zabel, H., and Farle, M. eds. (2013). Magnetic Nanostructures: Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, J. C., DeAngelis, D. L., and Zhuang, J. Y. (2011). “Development and Test of GIS-Based FUSLE Model in Sub-catchments of Chinese Fir Forest and Pine Forest in the Dabie Mountains, China,” in Theory and Practice of Soil Loss Control in Eastern China, eds. D. L. DeAngelis and J. Y. Zhuang (New York, NY: Springer), 81–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Digital Humanities.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017). Could Cold Spot In The Sky Be A Bruise From A Collision With A Parallel Universe? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975). Contract Award of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration to the Institute for Law and Social Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dallara, A. (2017). The “femme-homme” of the French Revolution: Gender boundaries and masculinization.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alexander, K. (2008). Fry, Baby. New York Times, MM77.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stratton, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Stratton, 2011; Davis and Shearer, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davis and Shearer, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakano et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Digital Humanities
AbbreviationFront. Digit. Humanit.
ISSN (online)2297-2668

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