How to format your references using the Journal of Landscape Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Landscape Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2012). The time is right to confront misconduct. Nature, 488(7409), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Strong, M., & Church, G. (2007). Gem of an idea for a unique machine. Nature, 447(7140), 112.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rockman, M. V., Skrovanek, S. S., & Kruglyak, L. (2010). Selection at linked sites shapes heritable phenotypic variation in C. elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6002), 372–376.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Westerheide, S. D., Anckar, J., Stevens, S. M., Jr, Sistonen, L., & Morimoto, R. I. (2009). Stress-inducible regulation of heat shock factor 1 by the deacetylase SIRT1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5917), 1063–1066.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kappe, C. O., Stadler, A., & Dallinger, D. (2012). Microwaves in Organic and Medicinal Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Semenov, O. (2008). ESD Protection Device and Circuit Design for Advanced CMOS Technologies (H. Sarbishaei & M. Sachdev, Eds.). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Cruz, A., Correia, A., Paredes, H., Fonseca, B., Morgado, L., & Martins, P. (2012). Towards an Overarching Classification Model of CSCW and Groupware: A Socio-technical Perspective. In V. Herskovic, H. U. Hoppe, M. Jansen, & J. Ziegler (Eds.), Collaboration and Technology: 18th International Conference, CRIWG 2012 Raesfeld, Germany, September 16-19, 2012 Proceedings (pp. 41–56). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Landscape Ecology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, July 11). Seven Dwarf Galaxies Discovered. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). GAO Reviews of USDA Biotechnology Research Efforts and Regulatory Programs and Activities (No. 129809). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Albers, C. (2015). One Academic Year Study of Experiences of One Cohort of Graduates from a Midwestern University’s Teacher Education Program [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, July 4). To Keep Cespedes Fit: Add Water, Stir, and Hope. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2012; Strong & Church, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Strong & Church, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Rockman et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Westerheide et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Landscape Ecology
ISSN (print)1803-2427
ISSN (online)1805-4196

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