How to format your references using the Journal of Landscape Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Landscape Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2012). What matters for science is who runs the country. Nature, 488(7413), 559.
A journal article with 2 authors
Corten, G. P., & Veldkamp, H. F. (2001). Aerodynamics. Insects can halve wind-turbine power. Nature, 412(6842), 41–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palikaras, K., Lionaki, E., & Tavernarakis, N. (2015). Coordination of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis during ageing in C. elegans. Nature, 521(7553), 525–528.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Girst, S., Hable, V., Drexler, G. A., Greubel, C., Siebenwirth, C., Haum, M., Friedl, A. A., & Dollinger, G. (2013). Subdiffusion supports joining of correct ends during repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Scientific Reports, 3, 2511.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abutarbush, S. M. (2015). Illustrated Guide to Equine Diseases. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Maker, V. K. (2015). Cognitive Pearls in General Surgery (E. D. Guzman-Arrieta, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Oshima, Y., Yoshida, T., Eri, T., Watanabe, K., Shibata, M., & Mishima, T. (2010). Freestanding GaN Wafers by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy Using Void-Assisted Separation Technology. In D. Ehrentraut, E. Meissner, & M. Bockowski (Eds.), Technology of Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth (pp. 79–96). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Landscape Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 8). Quantum Dots Can Charge Your Smartphone In 30 Seconds. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). Issues Concerning the National Materials Policy, Research and Development Act of 1980, Public Law 96-479 (121374). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fountain, J. M. (2014). Differences in Generational Work Values in America and Their Implications for Educational Leadership: A Longitudinal Test of Twenge’s Model [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2003, June 1). A Cultural Conundrum: The Chocolate Fortune Cookie. New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Corten & Veldkamp, 2001; Macilwain, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Corten & Veldkamp, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Palikaras et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Girst et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Landscape Ecology
ISSN (print)1803-2427
ISSN (online)1805-4196

Other styles