How to format your references using the Journal of Landscape Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Landscape Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neutze, R. (2015). STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY. Snapshots of a protein quake. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6259), 381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Niessing, J., & Friedrich, R. W. (2010). Olfactory pattern classification by discrete neuronal network states. Nature, 465(7294), 47–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, X., Rickert, M., & Garcia, K. C. (2005). Structure of the quaternary complex of interleukin-2 with its alpha, beta, and gammac receptors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5751), 1159–1163.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yun, M. J., Cha, S. I., Seo, S. H., & Lee, D. Y. (2014). Highly flexible dye-sensitized solar cells produced by sewing textile electrodes on cloth. Scientific Reports, 4, 5322.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burghardt, G., & Walls, B. (2011). Managed Futures for Institutional Investors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mondal, P. P. (2014). Fundamentals of Fluorescence Microscopy: Exploring Life with Light (A. Diaspro, Ed.). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Borgelt, C., & Picado-Muiño, D. (2014). Simple Pattern Spectrum Estimation for Fast Pattern Filtering with CoCoNAD. In H. Blockeel, M. van Leeuwen, & V. Vinciotti (Eds.), Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis XIII: 13th International Symposium, IDA 2014, Leuven, Belgium, October 30 – November 1, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 37–48). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Landscape Ecology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, June 27). Researchers Fix A 3-Billion-Year-Old Genetic Error. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2017). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority: Improved Planning of Future Rehabilitation Projects Could Prevent Limitations Identified with SafeTrack (GAO-17-348). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller, T. (2014). A qualitative phenomenological study: Hiring nurses re-entering the workforce after chemical dependence [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mele, C. (2017, June 8). Pirate Joe’s, Unauthorized Canadian Seller of Booty From U.S. Chain, Closes. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neutze, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Neutze, 2015; Niessing & Friedrich, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Niessing & Friedrich, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Wang et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yun et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Landscape Ecology
ISSN (print)1803-2427
ISSN (online)1805-4196

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