How to format your references using the Journal of Landscape Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Landscape Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl, R. (2000). Reactor refit ignites debate on Japan’s fusion strategy. Nature, 407(6804), 549.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ricciardi, A., & Ward, J. M. (2006). Comment on “Opposing effects of native and exotic herbivores on plant invasions.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5785), 298; author reply 298.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen, S. B., Stephenson, R., & Thomsen, E. (2007). Dynamics of Mid-Palaeocene North Atlantic rifting linked with European intra-plate deformations. Nature, 450(7172), 1071–1074.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kameyama, K., Kishi, Y., Yoshimura, M., Kanzawa, N., Sameshima, M., & Tsuchiya, T. (2000). Tyrosine phosphorylation in plant bending. Nature, 407(6800), 37.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Millon, T., & Grossman, S. (2007). Overcoming Resistant Personality Disorders. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schoburgh, E. D., Martin, J., & Gatchair, S. (Eds.). (2016). Developmental Local Governance: A Critical Discourse in ‘Alternative Development.’ Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Moot, R., & Retoré, C. (2012). The Non-associative Lambek Calculus. In C. Retoré (Ed.), The Logic of Categorial Grammars: A Deductive Account of Natural Language Syntax and Semantics (pp. 101–147). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Landscape Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 8). Powdered Alcohol Maker Defends Product. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Space Acquisitions: Actions Needed to Expand and Sustain Use of Best Practices (GAO-07-730T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Poudyal Kharel, A. (2015). Pyrolysis Studies of Copper and Copper Phosphate Mixtures on a Tungsten Surface [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L. (2012, March 11). Still Dictating Orders, This Time at the Altar. New York Times, ST19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ricciardi & Ward, 2006; Triendl, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ricciardi & Ward, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Nielsen et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kameyama et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Landscape Ecology
ISSN (print)1803-2427
ISSN (online)1805-4196

Other styles