How to format your references using the Journal of Landscape Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Landscape Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kroupa, P. (2002). The initial mass function of stars: evidence for uniformity in variable systems. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5552), 82–91.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dranovsky, A., & Leonardo, E. D. (2015). Neuroscience: The power of positivity. Nature, 522(7556), 294–295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Logoteta, D., Fiori, G., & Iannaccone, G. (2014). Graphene-based lateral heterostructure transistors exhibit better intrinsic performance than graphene-based vertical transistors as post-CMOS devices. Scientific Reports, 4, 6607.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Alvarez, B., Martínez-A, C., Burgering, B. M., & Carrera, A. C. (2001). Forkhead transcription factors contribute to execution of the mitotic programme in mammals. Nature, 413(6857), 744–747.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korhonen, J., Savolainen, T., & Soininen, J. (2013). Deploying IPv6 in 3GPP Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ólafsson, J. H., & Hay, R. J. (Eds.). (2016). Antibiotic and Antifungal Therapies in Dermatology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Makrushin, A., Scheidat, T., & Vielhauer, C. (2011). Handwriting Biometrics: Feature Selection Based Improvements in Authentication and Hash Generation Accuracy. In C. Vielhauer, J. Dittmann, A. Drygajlo, N. C. Juul, & M. C. Fairhurst (Eds.), Biometrics and ID Management: COST 2101 European Workshop, BioID 2011, Brandenburg (Havel), Germany, March 8-10, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 37–48). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Landscape Ecology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, January 31). What The Color Of Your Snot Says About Your Health. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Occupant Crash Protection (No. OGC-00-32). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liyakath, R. A. (2012). Reconfigurable Antenna and RF Circuits Using Multi-Layer Stretchable Conductors (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wertheimer, L. K. (2016, August 3). The Middle East Conflict on Campus. New York Times, p. ED10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kroupa, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dranovsky & Leonardo, 2015; Kroupa, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dranovsky & Leonardo, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Logoteta, Fiori, & Iannaccone, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Alvarez, Martínez-A, Burgering, & Carrera, 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Landscape Ecology
ISSN (print)1803-2427
ISSN (online)1805-4196

Other styles