How to format your references using the Journal of Landscape Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Landscape Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bloom, P. (2004). Behavior. Can a dog learn a word? Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5677), 1605–1606.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khosla, C., & Harbury, P. B. (2001). Modular enzymes. Nature, 409(6817), 247–252.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hansell, D. A., Kadko, D., & Bates, N. R. (2004). Degradation of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon in the western Arctic Ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5672), 858–861.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Paragi, Z., Taylor, G. B., Kouveliotou, C., Granot, J., Ramirez-Ruiz, E., Bietenholz, M., van der Horst, A. J., Pidopryhora, Y., van Langevelde, H. J., Garrett, M. A., Szomoru, A., Argo, M. K., Bourke, S., & Paczyński, B. (2010). A mildly relativistic radio jet from the otherwise normal type Ic supernova 2007gr. Nature, 463(7280), 516–518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tapiero, C. S. (2010). Risk Finance and Asset Pricing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Varga, B. O. (2016). Electric and Hybrid Buses for Urban Transport: Energy Efficiency Strategies (C. Iclodean & F. Mariasiu, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lemon, N. (2014). Sending Out a Tweet. In N. Lemon & S. Garvis (Eds.), Being “In and Out”: Providing Voice to Early Career Women in Academia (pp. 43–54). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Landscape Ecology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, November 11). You Can Now Officially Own Resources Extracted From Asteroids. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Space Station: Status of Financial Reserves (NSIAD-92-279). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chotkevys, D. L. (2009). A grounded theory study to explore how nurses overcome barriers to spiritual care [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, September 7). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Awkward Moments in Video Politics. New York Times, 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bloom, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bloom, 2004; Khosla & Harbury, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Khosla & Harbury, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Hansell et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Paragi et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Landscape Ecology
ISSN (print)1803-2427
ISSN (online)1805-4196

Other styles