How to format your references using the Crime, Law and Social Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crime, Law and Social Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rich, P. (2003). Chemiosmotic coupling: The cost of living. Nature, 421(6923), 583.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shizuka, D., & Lyon, B. E. (2010). Coots use hatch order to learn to recognize and reject conspecific brood parasitic chicks. Nature, 463(7278), 223–226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Snyder, S. A., Gollner, A., & Chiriac, M. I. (2011). Regioselective reactions for programmable resveratrol oligomer synthesis. Nature, 474(7352), 461–466.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Papa, F. R., Zhang, C., Shokat, K., & Walter, P. (2003). Bypassing a kinase activity with an ATP-competitive drug. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5650), 1533–1537.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mowlaee, P., Kulmer, J., Stahl, J., & Mayer, F. (2017). Single Channel Phase-Aware Signal Processing in Speech Communication: Theory and Practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gutbrod, R. (2012). The Software Dilemma: Balancing Creativity and Control on the Path to Sustainable Software. (C. Wiele, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Alcaraz, C., & Lopez, J. (2012). Addressing Situational Awareness in Critical Domains of a Smart Grid. In L. Xu, E. Bertino, & Y. Mu (Eds.), Network and System Security: 6th International Conference, NSS 2012, Wuyishan, Fujian, China, November 21-23, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 58–71). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crime, Law and Social Change.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 4). Huge Lighting Storm As Seen From Space. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Charter Schools: A Growing and Diverse National Reform Movement (No. T-HEHS-95-52). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joshi, R. A. (2010). Adaptive nulling in multiple beam antennas using quantized state adaptive algorithms (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, August 18). Updating DNA’s Life Story. New York Times, p. BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCrime, Law and Social Change
AbbreviationCrime Law Soc. Change
ISSN (print)0925-4994
ISSN (online)1573-0751
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine
General Social Sciences

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