How to format your references using the Crime, Law and Social Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crime, Law and Social Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Murphy, D. M. (2005). Atmospheric science. Something in the air. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5717), 1888–1890.
A journal article with 2 authors
Costello, E. K., & Relman, D. A. (2014). Population health: immaturity in the gut microbial community. Nature, 510(7505), 344–345.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rozin, P., Haidt, J., & Fincher, K. (2009). Psychology. From oral to moral. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5918), 1179–1180.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
van Riel, D., Munster, V. J., de Wit, E., Rimmelzwaan, G. F., Fouchier, R. A. M., Osterhaus, A. D. M. E., & Kuiken, T. (2006). H5N1 Virus Attachment to Lower Respiratory Tract. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5772), 399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walkenbach, J. (2010). John Walkenbach’s Favorite Excel® 2010 Tips & Tricks. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Hawksworth, D. L., & Bull, A. T. (Eds.). (2006). Arthropod Diversity and Conservation (Vol. 1). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Budka, M., Eastwood, M., Gabrys, B., Kadlec, P., Martin Salvador, M., Schwan, S., … Žliobaitė, I. (2014). From Sensor Readings to Predictions: On the Process of Developing Practical Soft Sensors. In H. Blockeel, M. van Leeuwen, & V. Vinciotti (Eds.), Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis XIII: 13th International Symposium, IDA 2014, Leuven, Belgium, October 30 – November 1, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 49–60). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crime, Law and Social Change.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, November 15). Check Out This Great Footage Of Space Junk “WT1190F” Burning Up In Atmosphere. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Amtrak: Better Reporting, Planning, and Improved Financial Information Could Enhance Decision Making (No. GAO-16-67). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nunez, F. V. (2010). A study of the application of the concepts of Karen Horney in leadership development within the National Management Association of the Boeing Company (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, June 30). Court Upholds Arizona Limits Imposed on Insanity Defense. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCrime, Law and Social Change
AbbreviationCrime Law Soc. Change
ISSN (print)0925-4994
ISSN (online)1573-0751
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine
General Social Sciences

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