How to format your references using the Crime, Law and Social Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crime, Law and Social Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwab, M. E. (2002). Repairing the injured spinal cord. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5557), 1029–1031.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murakami, M., & Kouyama, T. (2008). Crystal structure of squid rhodopsin. Nature, 453(7193), 363–367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kulmala, M., Pirjola, L., & Makela, J. M. (2000). Stable sulphate clusters as a source of new atmospheric particles. Nature, 404(6773), 66–69.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mao, C., LaBean, T. H., Relf, J. H., & Seeman, N. C. (2000). Logical computation using algorithmic self-assembly of DNA triple-crossover molecules. Nature, 407(6803), 493–496.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bush, J., Harris, D. M., & Parker, R. J. (2016). Cognitive Self Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sahayaraj, K. (Ed.). (2014). Basic and Applied Aspects of Biopesticides. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhao, L.-J., Tang, J., & Chai, T.-Y. (2012). Modeling Spectral Data Based on Mutual Information and Kernel Extreme Learning Machines. In J. Wang, G. G. Yen, & M. M. Polycarpou (Eds.), Advances in Neural Networks – ISNN 2012: 9th International Symposium on Neural Networks, Shenyang, China, July 11-14, 2012. Proceedings, Part I (pp. 29–36). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crime, Law and Social Change.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 26). How We Found The Source Of The Mystery Signals At The Dish. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Aviation Safety: FAA Needs to Update Curriculum and Certification Requirements for Aviation Mechanics (No. GAO-03-317). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Singh, A. (2017). Improving the Usability of Typometric Solutions (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dargis, M., & Poniewozik, J. (2017, August 31). Not Exactly Your Simple Sequel. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCrime, Law and Social Change
AbbreviationCrime Law Soc. Change
ISSN (print)0925-4994
ISSN (online)1573-0751
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine
General Social Sciences

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