How to format your references using the Crime, Law and Social Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crime, Law and Social Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Griffith, C. A. (2014). Solar system: Not just a storm in a teacup. Nature, 514(7520), 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lutz, R. A., & Falkowski, P. G. (2012). Ocean science. A dive to Challenger Deep. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6079), 301–302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alford, R. A., Bradfield, K. S., & Richards, S. J. (2007). Ecology: global warming and amphibian losses. Nature, 447(7144), E3-4; discussion E5-6.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rivalan, P., Delmas, V., Angulo, E., Bull, L. S., Hall, R. J., Courchamp, F., … Leader-Williams, N. (2007). Can bans stimulate wildlife trade? Nature, 447(7144), 529–530.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn, A., Behle, B., Lischewski, D., & Rein, W. (2002). Produktionstechnische Praxis. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Sierra, F., & Kohanski, R. (Eds.). (2016). Advances in Geroscience (1st ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Schnars, U., Falldorf, C., Watson, J., & Jüptner, W. (2015). Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI). In C. Falldorf, J. Watson, & W. Jüptner (Eds.), Digital Holography and Wavefront Sensing: Principles, Techniques and Applications (pp. 69–94). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crime, Law and Social Change.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, March 3). Other Solar Systems Are Looking More Like Ours. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1969). Use of Fixed-Price Contracts for the Procurement of Studies and Investigations of Research and Development Matters (No. 092660). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bourgault, R. R. (2008). Multi-scale pedologic investigation of manganiferous soils in the Maryland Piedmont (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (1999, November 8). Inspiring Without Saying a Word. New York Times, p. F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCrime, Law and Social Change
AbbreviationCrime Law Soc. Change
ISSN (print)0925-4994
ISSN (online)1573-0751
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine
General Social Sciences

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