How to format your references using the Crime, Law and Social Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crime, Law and Social Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Remer, L. A. (2014). Atmospheric science. Just add aerosols. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6188), 1089.
A journal article with 2 authors
Le Borgne, M., & Shaw, A. S. (2013). Immunology. Do T cells have a cilium? Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6163), 1177–1178.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sugawara, T., Kano, F., & Murata, M. (2014). Rab2A is a pivotal switch protein that promotes either secretion or ER-associated degradation of (pro)insulin in insulin-secreting cells. Scientific reports, 4, 6952.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chambers, S. A., Droubay, T., Jennison, D. R., & Mattsson, T. R. (2002). Laminar growth of ultrathin metal films on metal oxides: Co on hydroxylated alpha-Al2O3(0001). Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5582), 827–831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kharmanda, G., & El Hami, A. (2016). Reliability in Biomechanics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lemke, K., Paar, C., & Wolf, M. (Eds.). (2006). Embedded Security in Cars: Securing Current and Future Automotive IT Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Goodman, G. S. (2014). School Sucks! Deconstructing Taylorist Obsessions. In T. Corcoran (Ed.), Psychology in Education: Critical Theory~Practice (pp. 71–81). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crime, Law and Social Change.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, January 28). Trouble strikes China’s lunar rover, Yutu. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from’s-lunar-rover-yutu/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). A Look at NASA’s Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program (No. PSAD-80-50). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wuite, J. (2006). Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Three East Antarctic Outlet Glaciers and Their Floating Ice Tongues (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., & Mather, V. (2013, February 14). To Avoid I.O.C. Cut, a Sport Changed. New York Times, p. B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCrime, Law and Social Change
AbbreviationCrime Law Soc. Change
ISSN (print)0925-4994
ISSN (online)1573-0751
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine
General Social Sciences

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