How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.J. Hötzel, Achievers should stay to aid Brazilian science., Nature. 407 (2000) 834.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Costa, P. Shaw, Chromatin organization and cell fate switch respond to positional information in Arabidopsis, Nature. 439 (2006) 493–496.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Molnar, G.A. Houseman, P.C. England, Earth science: palaeo-altimetry of Tibet, Nature. 444 (2006) E4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.S. Kim, L.T. Kakalis, N. Abdul-Manan, G.A. Liu, M.K. Rosen, Autoinhibition and activation mechanisms of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, Nature. 404 (2000) 151–158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, Guidelines for Chemical Transportation Safety, Security, and Risk Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
U. Schrader, V. Fricke, D. Doyle, V.W. Thoresen, eds., Enabling Responsible Living, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Selinger, A Survey of Graphical Languages for Monoidal Categories, in: B. Coecke (Ed.), New Structures for Physics, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 289–355.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Virology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, These Simulations Let You Visualize What It Would Look Like If The The Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hit Your City, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Intelligent Transportation Systems: Vehicle-to-Vehicle Technologies Expected to Offer Safety Benefits, but a Variety of Deployment Challenges Exist, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.B. McCourt, A phenomenological study of anticipated housing, healthcare, and biopsychosocial needs of aging female baby boomers, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Marx, A Modern Marriage With Multiple Parts, New York Times. (2015) ST17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Virology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Virol.
ISSN (print)1386-6532
Infectious Diseases

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