How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Kanwisher, Neuroscience. What’s in a face?, Science. 311 (2006) 617–618.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.-Y. Su, J.R. Carlson, Neuroscience. Circuit logic of avoidance and attraction, Science. 340 (2013) 1295–1297.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.W. Feldman, R.C. Lewontin, M.-C. King, Race: a genetic melting-pot, Nature. 424 (2003) 374.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.H.J. Yang, S.D. Moore, B.S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, D. Erickson, Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides, Nature. 457 (2009) 71–75.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.L. Meinert, Clinical Trials Dictionary, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
E.A. Nasr, Computer-Based Design and Manufacturing: An Information-Based Approach, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Cerasa, F. Torti, D. Perrotta, Heteroscedasticity, Multiple Populations and Outliers in Trade Data, in: T. Di Battista, E. Moreno, W. Racugno (Eds.), Topics on Methodological and Applied Statistical Inference, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 43–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Virology.

Blog post
T. Hale, City Installs Special Traffic Lights For 'Smartphone Zombies”, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness of State Automated Systems to Support Federal Welfare Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.H. Demenkoff, Evolution and emergence of the masculinities: Epiphanies and epiphenomena of the male athlete and dancer, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.R. Oestreich, For the Record, a Conductor Talks With an Author, New York Times. (2016) C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Virology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Virol.
ISSN (print)1386-6532
Infectious Diseases

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