How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Brody, Colorectal cancer, Nature. 521 (2015) S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Tobisu, N. Chatani, Chemistry. Remote control by steric effects, Science. 343 (2014) 850–851.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.E. Tamisiea, J.X. Mitrovica, J.L. Davis, GRACE gravity data constrain ancient ice geometries and continental dynamics over Laurentia, Science. 316 (2007) 881–883.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Gougoux, F. Lepore, M. Lassonde, P. Voss, R.J. Zatorre, P. Belin, Neuropsychology: pitch discrimination in the early blind, Nature. 430 (2004) 309.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Cherian, Energy and Global Climate Change, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
H. Stadtler, Advanced Planning in Supply Chains: Illustrating the Concepts Using an SAP® APO Case Study, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Buendía-García, J.V. Benlloch-Dualde, Concept Maps and Patterns for Designing Learning Scenarios Based on Digital-Ink Technologies, in: P. Vittorini, R. Gennari, I. Marenzi, F. de la Prieta, J.M.C. Rodríguez (Eds.), International Workshop on Evidence-Based Technology Enhanced Learning, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 27–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Virology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists Discover A Way To Heal A Broken Heart, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Insights Into CETA’s In-School Youth Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.M. Cappiello, Minding the gap: Western export controls and soviet technology policy during the 1960s, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Coaches Come and Go, Except JoePa, New York Times. (2010) B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Virology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Virol.
ISSN (print)1386-6532
Infectious Diseases

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