How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.E. Brashears, Humans use compression heuristics to improve the recall of social networks, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1513.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Gick, D. Derrick, Aero-tactile integration in speech perception, Nature. 462 (2009) 502–504.
A journal article with 3 authors
O.D. Lavrentovich, I. Lazo, O.P. Pishnyak, Nonlinear electrophoresis of dielectric and metal spheres in a nematic liquid crystal, Nature. 467 (2010) 947–950.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K.B. Kjelstrup, T. Solstad, V.H. Brun, T. Hafting, S. Leutgeb, M.P. Witter, E.I. Moser, M.-B. Moser, Finite scale of spatial representation in the hippocampus, Science. 321 (2008) 140–143.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.L. Church, A.T. Murray, Business Site Selection, Location Analysis and GIS, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
G. Schneier-Madanes, M.-F. Courel, eds., Water and Sustainability in Arid Regions: Bridging the Gap Between Physical and Social Sciences, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
J.A.S. Kelso, Synergies: Atoms of Brain and Behavior, in: D. Sternad (Ed.), Progress in Motor Control: A Multidisciplinary Perspective, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2009: pp. 83–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Virology.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Turing’s Biological Work Passes Test, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA’s Development of EOSDIS, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.C. Mason, A Heart Like a Fakir’s The Life and Times of General Sir James Abbott, KCB, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
N. MacFARQUHAR, A Developer and Kremlin Fixer With a Web of Trump Contacts, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Virology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Virol.
ISSN (print)1386-6532
Infectious Diseases

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