How to format your references using the Biotechnology and Bioengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aho AV. 2004. Software and the future of programming languages. Science 303:1331–1333.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thurner S, Poledna S. 2013. DebtRank-transparency: controlling systemic risk in financial networks. Sci. Rep. 3:1888.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grenier MB, McDonald DB, Buskirk SW. 2007. Rapid population growth of a critically endangered carnivore. Science 317:779.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lorenz RD, Stiles BW, Kirk RL, Allison MD, Del Marmo PP, Iess L, Lunine JI, Ostro SJ, Hensley S. 2008. Titan’s rotation reveals an internal ocean and changing zonal winds. Science 319:1649–1651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee Abbott M, McKinney J. 2012. Understanding and Applying Research Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gornitzka Å, Langfeldt L eds. 2008. Borderless Knowledge: Understanding the “New” Internationalisation of Research and Higher Education in Norway. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. Vol. 22 IX, 193 p p. Higher Education Dynamics.
A chapter in an edited book
Tejchman J, Kozicki J. 2010. Lattice Discrete Model. In: Kozicki, J, editor. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Steel-Fibrous Concrete. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering, pp. 181–268.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotechnology and Bioengineering.

Blog post
Fang J. 2014. Functional Designer Yeast Chromosome Synthesized. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. FTS 2000: An Overview of the Federal Government’s New Telecommunications System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayes MG. 2010. A qualitative case study of cultural competency among Advanced Placement teachers in Florida. Doctoral dissertation; Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Gordon MR. 2017. Inside the American Air War Over Syria: A High Altitude ‘Poker Game.’ New York Times, May 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aho, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Aho, 2004; Thurner and Poledna, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thurner and Poledna, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Lorenz et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotechnology and Bioengineering
AbbreviationBiotechnol. Bioeng.
ISSN (print)0006-3592
ISSN (online)1097-0290
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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