How to format your references using the Biotechnology and Bioengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huron D. 2008. Science & music: lost in music. Nature 453:456–457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rohde RA, Muller RA. 2005. Cycles in fossil diversity. Nature 434:208–210.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song H, Stevens CF, Gage FH. 2002. Astroglia induce neurogenesis from adult neural stem cells. Nature 417:39–44.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sun Y, Olson R, Horning M, Armstrong N, Mayer M, Gouaux E. 2002. Mechanism of glutamate receptor desensitization. Nature 417:245–253.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waye JD, Aisenberg J, Rubin PH. 2013. Practical Colonoscopy. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Arndt N. 2012. Metals and Society: An Introduction to Economic Geology. Ed. Clément Ganino. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. Vol. 2 XIV, 162 p p. Metals and Society.
A chapter in an edited book
Heald RJ, Moran BJ. 2015. Surgical Anatomy of the Rectum and the TME Specimen (Total Mesorectal Excision). In: Baatrup, G, editor. Multidisciplinary Treatment of Colorectal Cancer: Staging – Treatment – Pathology – Palliation. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 33–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotechnology and Bioengineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Bad News, Arachnophobes: All Adults Have Facial Mites. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Federal Trust and Other Earmarked Funds: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
King GD. 2010. Public Works Directors’ Perceptions of the Effects of Stakeholders on Environmental Policies in California Cities. Doctoral dissertation; Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 2011. Even After Prison And an Ankle Injury, Burress Says He’s Ready. New York Times, August 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huron, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Huron, 2008; Rohde and Muller, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rohde and Muller, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Sun et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotechnology and Bioengineering
AbbreviationBiotechnol. Bioeng.
ISSN (print)0006-3592
ISSN (online)1097-0290
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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