How to format your references using the Biotechnology and Bioengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin V. 2005. Making it in the biotech business. Nature 435:124–125.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knaden M, Wehner R. 2004. Path integration in desert ants controls aggressiveness. Science 305:60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kane Dickson V, Pedi L, Long SB. 2014. Structure and insights into the function of a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel. Nature 516:213–218.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen K-M, Harjes E, Gross PJ, Fahmy A, Lu Y, Shindo K, Harris RS, Matsuo H. 2008. Structure of the DNA deaminase domain of the HIV-1 restriction factor APOBEC3G. Nature 452:116–119.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smirnov BM. 2010. Cluster Processes in Gases and Plasmas. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Afzalpulkar N, Srivastava V, Singh G, Bhatnagar D eds. 2016. Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Cognizance in Wireless Communication & Image Processing: ICRCWIP-2014. New Delhi: Springer India XXIX, 1002 p. 600 illus., 410 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Willey JS, Ueno NT. 2012. Inflammatory Breast Cancer Registry. In: Ueno, NT, Cristofanilli, M, editors. Inflammatory Breast Cancer: An Update. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 21–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotechnology and Bioengineering.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2015. Vegetarian Birds Turn Carnivorous. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1985. Second-Year Implementation of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act in the Department of Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duncan KF. 2016. Middle school teachers’ self-perceptions of response to intervention. Doctoral dissertation; Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Solomon BC. 2017. In Grim Camps, Desperate Scene for Rohingya. New York Times, September 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin, 2005; Knaden and Wehner, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Knaden and Wehner, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotechnology and Bioengineering
AbbreviationBiotechnol. Bioeng.
ISSN (print)0006-3592
ISSN (online)1097-0290
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles