How to format your references using the Journal of International Humanitarian Action citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Humanitarian Action. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walt DR (2005) Chemistry. Miniature analytical methods for medical diagnostics. Science 308:217–219
A journal article with 2 authors
Boesz C, Lloyd N (2008) Collaborations: investigating international misconduct. Nature 452:686–687
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlseder J, Smogorzewska A, de Lange T (2002) Senescence induced by altered telomere state, not telomere loss. Science 295:2446–2449
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liu R, Zhou J, Zhao H, et al (2014) Immature visual neural system in children reflected by contrast sensitivity with adaptive optics correction. Sci Rep 4:4687

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edmonds ME, Foster AVM, Sanders LJ (2008) A Practical Manual of Diabetic Foot Care. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Andreescu C, Clenci A (eds) (2016) Proceedings of the European Automotive Congress EAEC-ESFA 2015, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Knaster S, Malik W, Dalrymple M (2012) Composition. In: Malik W, Dalrymple M (eds) Learn Objective-C on the Mac: For iOS and OS X. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 67–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Humanitarian Action.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) Aerial Footage Of The Enormous Antarctic Ice Crack That’s Worrying Scientists. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Truck Safety: Information on Driver Training. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung D (2017) Health Information Infrastructure: Flows and Frictions. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly RE (2017) An agenda for South Korea’s new leader. New York Times 0

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walt 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Walt 2005; Boesz and Lloyd 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boesz and Lloyd 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Humanitarian Action
AbbreviationJ. Int. Humanit. Action
ISSN (print)2364-3412
ISSN (online)2364-3404

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