How to format your references using the Journal of International Humanitarian Action citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Humanitarian Action. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mayo MJ (2009) Video games: a route to large-scale STEM education? Science 323:79–82
A journal article with 2 authors
Gillson L, Hoffman MT (2007) Ecology. Rangeland ecology in a changing world. Science 315:53–54
A journal article with 3 authors
Park HH, Woo K, Ahn J-P (2013) Core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles robustly fixed on the outermost surface of magnetic silica microspheres. Sci Rep 3:1497
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Setogawa S, Yamaura H, Arasaki T, et al (2014) Deficits in memory-guided limb movements impair obstacle avoidance locomotion in Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. Sci Rep 4:7220

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edgerton M (2013) A Practitioner’s Guide to Effective Maritime and Port Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Brian É (2007) The Descent of Human Sex Ratio at Birth: A Dialogue between Mathematics, Biology and Sociology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Boehm M, Habich D, Lehner W, Wloka U (2009) Invisible Deployment of Integration Processes. In: Filipe J, Cordeiro J (eds) Enterprise Information Systems: 11th International Conference, ICEIS 2009, Milan, Italy, May 6-10, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 53–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Humanitarian Action.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Natural Cancer Remedies: Sorting Fact From Fiction. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Tobacco Product Regulation: Most FDA Spending Funded Public Education, Regulatory Science, and Compliance and Enforcement Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Colchero Dorado R (2008) Recovering memory in Jordi Soler’s “Los rojos de ultramar.” Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) Under the Radar Amid Wide Labor Strife. New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mayo 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Gillson and Hoffman 2007; Mayo 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gillson and Hoffman 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Setogawa et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Humanitarian Action
AbbreviationJ. Int. Humanit. Action
ISSN (print)2364-3412
ISSN (online)2364-3404

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