How to format your references using the Journal of International Humanitarian Action citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Humanitarian Action. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie T (2008) Physiology. Burn fat, live longer. Science 322:865–866
A journal article with 2 authors
Kornack DR, Rakic P (2001) Cell proliferation without neurogenesis in adult primate neocortex. Science 294:2127–2130
A journal article with 3 authors
Yonezawa H, Aoki T, Furusawa A (2004) Demonstration of a quantum teleportation network for continuous variables. Nature 431:430–433
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Luecke H, Schobert B, Lanyi JK, et al (2001) Crystal structure of sensory rhodopsin II at 2.4 angstroms: insights into color tuning and transducer interaction. Science 293:1499–1503

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pétrowski A, Ben-Hamida S (2017) Evolutionary Algorithms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bajc V (ed) (2016) Surveilling and Securing the Olympics: From Tokyo 1964 to London 2012 and Beyond. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Altić MS (2014) Exploring Along the Rome Meridian: Roger Boscovich and the First Modern Map of the Papal States. In: Liebenberg E, Collier P, Török ZG (eds) History of Cartography: International Symposium of the ICA, 2012. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 71–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Humanitarian Action.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Earth “Ate” Another Planet Early In Its History. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984) Secondary Market Activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Finley S (2014) How online communication and social media networking are used in alcohol use treatment. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J (2017) War Is Hell? No, One-Dimensional. New York Times AR116

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xie 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kornack and Rakic 2001; Xie 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kornack and Rakic 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Luecke et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Humanitarian Action
AbbreviationJ. Int. Humanit. Action
ISSN (print)2364-3412
ISSN (online)2364-3404

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