How to format your references using the Journal of International Humanitarian Action citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Humanitarian Action. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Narain S (2012) Sanitation for all. Nature 486:185
A journal article with 2 authors
Serebrov V, Pyle AM (2004) Periodic cycles of RNA unwinding and pausing by hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase. Nature 430:476–480
A journal article with 3 authors
Li C, Zhang X, Cao Z (2005) Triangular and Fibonacci number patterns driven by stress on core/shell microstructures. Science 309:909–911
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Parker JB, Bianchet MA, Krosky DJ, et al (2007) Enzymatic capture of an extrahelical thymine in the search for uracil in DNA. Nature 449:433–437

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam MR, Chhetri AB, Khan MM (2010) The Greening of Petroleum Operations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Swamee PK (2015) Design of Canals. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Broadhurst R, Chang LYC (2013) Cybercrime in Asia: Trends and Challenges. In: Liu J, Hebenton B, Jou S (eds) Handbook of Asian Criminology. Springer, New York, NY, pp 49–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Humanitarian Action.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) China’s Record-Breaking Glass Bridge Is Amazing And Terrifying. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2017) Airport Funding: FAA’s and Industry’s Cost Estimates for Airport Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beechey SN (2008) The politics of deservingness: Discourses of gender, race, *class, and age in the 2005 Social Security debates. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Long Game Leaves Mets’ Bullpen Weary, and Ready for a Reinforcement. New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Narain 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Serebrov and Pyle 2004; Narain 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Serebrov and Pyle 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Parker et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Humanitarian Action
AbbreviationJ. Int. Humanit. Action
ISSN (print)2364-3412
ISSN (online)2364-3404

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