How to format your references using the Journal of International Humanitarian Action citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Humanitarian Action. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vukusic P (2009) Materials science. Evolutionary photonics with a twist. Science 325:398–399
A journal article with 2 authors
Fernandez JM, Li H (2004) Force-clamp spectroscopy monitors the folding trajectory of a single protein. Science 303:1674–1678
A journal article with 3 authors
Biggins JB, Onwueme KC, Thorson JS (2003) Resistance to enediyne antitumor antibiotics by CalC self-sacrifice. Science 301:1537–1541
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nimura K, Ura K, Shiratori H, et al (2009) A histone H3 lysine 36 trimethyltransferase links Nkx2-5 to Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Nature 460:287–291

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allerton D (2009) Principles of Flight Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Crew MA, Crew MA, Spiegel M (eds) (2005) Obtaining the Best from Regulation and Competition. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Sánchez DD, Lopez AM, Mendoza FA (2006) A Smart Card Solution for Access Control and Trust Management for Nomadic Users. In: Domingo-Ferrer J, Posegga J, Schreckling D (eds) Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications: 7th IFIP WG 8.8/11.2 International Conference, CARDIS 2006, Tarragona, Spain, April 19-21, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 62–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Humanitarian Action.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Russia Is Using An Ingenious Method To Stop People Abusing Disabled Parking Spots. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Overview of the Adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Its Operation in California. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Angervil G (2017) Administrative Discretion in Public Policy Implementation: The Case of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) Federer Beats Wawrinka, and His Own Aging Body, to Reach Final. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vukusic 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Fernandez and Li 2004; Vukusic 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fernandez and Li 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Nimura et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Humanitarian Action
AbbreviationJ. Int. Humanit. Action
ISSN (print)2364-3412
ISSN (online)2364-3404

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