How to format your references using the cultural geographies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for cultural geographies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. W. Schoener,
‘The newest synthesis: understanding the interplay of evolutionary and ecological dynamics’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 331, 2011, 426–429.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. K. Vogel and M. G. Machizawa,
‘Neural activity predicts individual differences in visual working memory capacity’, Nature, 428, 2004, 748–751.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Wild, I. Sinning and S. Cusack,
‘Crystal structure of an early protein-RNA assembly complex of the signal recognition particle’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 294, 2001, 598–601.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
D. Iber, J. Clarkson, M. D. Yudkin and I. D. Campbell,
‘The mechanism of cell differentiation in Bacillus subtilis’, Nature, 441, 2006, 371–374.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Avdeef,
Absorption and Drug Development (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012).
An edited book
P. Bertail, P. Soulier and P. Doukhan (eds.),
Dependence in Probability and Statistics (Springer: New York, NY, 2006), p. VIII, 490 p. 40 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Guo and G. Zhao,
‘Boundaries, Territorial Disputes, and Water Insecurity: Evidence from the Lower Mekong Basin’, in R. Guo and C. Freeman (eds), Managing Fragile Regions: Method and Application (Springer: New York, NY, 2011), pp. 81–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for cultural geographies.

Blog post
J. Fang,
Mysterious 55-Million-Year-Old Rhino-Horse Relative Found in India, IFLScience, 2014. Available at: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office,
Aviation Safety: Data Problems Threaten FAA Strides on Safety Analysis System (U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. Lundahl Philpot,
Social media adoption and use among information technology professionals and implications for leadership (Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hollander,
‘Cadets Can’t Catch Cougars’, New York Times, 1999, 811.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titlecultural geographies
AbbreviationCult. Geogr.
ISSN (print)1474-4740
ISSN (online)1477-0881
ScopeEnvironmental Science (miscellaneous)
Geography, Planning and Development
Cultural Studies

Other styles