How to format your references using the BMC Medical Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Medical Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Branco T. Eppendorf winner. The language of dendrites. Science. 2011;334:615–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Madin JS, Connolly SR. Ecological consequences of major hydrodynamic disturbances on coral reefs. Nature. 2006;444:477–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hernlund JW, Thomas C, Tackley PJ. A doubling of the post-perovskite phase boundary and structure of the Earth’s lowermost mantle. Nature. 2005;434:882–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sánchez-Otero N, Rodríguez-Berrocal FJ, de la Cadena MP, Botana-Rial MI, Cordero OJ. Evaluation of pleural effusion sCD26 and DPP-IV as diagnostic biomarkers in lung disease. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3999.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. McCallum H. Population Parameters: Estimation for Ecological Models. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Montani S, Jain LC, editors. Successful Case-based Reasoning Applications - I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Azcue P, Muler N. Optimal Strategies. In: Muler N, editor. Stochastic Optimization in Insurance: A Dynamic Programming Approach. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 97–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Medical Ethics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Are We Ready For A Test That Could ‘Pre-Diagnose’ Autism In Babies? IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/are-we-ready-test-could-pre-diagnose-autism-babies/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FCC: Installment Payment Financing for Personal Communications Services Licensees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Adams TA. Improving Scores on Computerized Reading Assessments: The Effects of Colored Overlay Use. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Nordland R. 3 G.I.s Killed When Afghan Opens Fire. New York Times. 2017;:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Medical Ethics
AbbreviationBMC Med. Ethics
ISSN (online)1472-6939
ScopeHealth Policy
Issues, ethics and legal aspects
Health(social science)

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