How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M., 2010. Evolution: The first supper. Nature 468, S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lv, X., Weng, J., 2013. Ternary composite of hemin, gold nanoparticles and graphene for highly efficient decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Sci. Rep. 3, 3285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Derry, W.B., Putzke, A.P., Rothman, J.H., 2001. Caenorhabditis elegans p53: role in apoptosis, meiosis, and stress resistance. Science 294, 591–595.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
He, G., Luo, W., Li, P., Remmers, C., Netzer, W.J., Hendrick, J., Bettayeb, K., Flajolet, M., Gorelick, F., Wennogle, L.P., Greengard, P., 2010. Gamma-secretase activating protein is a therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s disease. Nature 467, 95–98.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mcphee, J.E., 2014. Mastering Strategic Risk. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tazreiter, C., 2016. Fluid Security in the Asia Pacific: Transnational Lives, Human Rights and State Control, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Transnational Crime, Crime Control and Security. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Hiedanpää, J., Bromley, D.W., 2016. Environmental Governance, in: Bromley, D.W. (Ed.), Environmental Heresies: The Quest for Reasonable. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 55–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Pain.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Watch Satellites and Space Debris Floating Around Earth in Real Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Rail Transportation: Federal Railroad Administration’s New Approach to Railroad Safety (No. RCED-97-142). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCollough, K.D., 2017. Applying Military Developments in Netcentricity to Civilian Emergency Management (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J., 2017. First Americans: This Dog Is Quite Proud, Despite All Appearances. New York Times D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein, 2010; Lv and Weng, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lv and Weng, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Pain
ISSN (print)2452-073X

Other styles