How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guthrie, R.D., 2003. Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction. Nature 426, 169–171.
A journal article with 2 authors
Regev, A., Shapiro, E., 2002. Cells as computation. Nature 419, 343.
A journal article with 3 authors
Downs, J.A., Nussenzweig, M.C., Nussenzweig, A., 2007. Chromatin dynamics and the preservation of genetic information. Nature 447, 951–958.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barber, D.L., Wherry, E.J., Masopust, D., Zhu, B., Allison, J.P., Sharpe, A.H., Freeman, G.J., Ahmed, R., 2006. Restoring function in exhausted CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection. Nature 439, 682–687.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2014. Energy Materials 2014. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Clemente, F.M., 2016. Social Network Analysis Applied to Team Sports Analysis, 1st ed. 2016. ed, SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Wagner-Bartak, N.A., Prabhakar, A.M., Menias, C.O., Prabhakar, H.B., Elsayes, K.M., 2015. The Biliary Tree, in: Elsayes, K.M. (Ed.), Cross-Sectional Imaging of the Abdomen and Pelvis: A Practical Algorithmic Approach. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 111–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Pain.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. New Hominin Species Discovered in Ethiopia [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Acquisition Has Increased Costs, Reduced Capabilities, and Delayed Schedules (No. GAO-09-596T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Millar, C.L., 2010. Re-specting graffiti: Transgression at play in art, language, and ritual (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Medina, J., Pérez-Peña, R., Goldman, A., 2017. Meticulous Plan To Rain Carnage On Concertgoers. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Guthrie, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Guthrie, 2003; Regev and Shapiro, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Regev and Shapiro, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Barber et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Pain
ISSN (print)2452-073X

Other styles