How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M., 2000. US geneticists encouraged to play by the book. Nature 404, 530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shekhawat, G.S., Dravid, V.P., 2005. Nanoscale imaging of buried structures via scanning near-field ultrasound holography. Science 310, 89–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tatano, Y., Shimizu, T., Tomioka, H., 2014. Unique macrophages different from M1/M2 macrophages inhibit T cell mitogenesis while upregulating Th17 polarization. Sci. Rep. 4, 4146.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Graham, D.W., Blichert-Toft, J., Russo, C.J., Rubin, K.H., Albarède, F., 2006. Cryptic striations in the upper mantle revealed by hafnium isotopes in southeast Indian ridge basalts. Nature 440, 199–202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kraehmer, H., Baur, P., 2013. Weed Anatomy. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Hall, G.B., Leahy, M.G. (Eds.), 2008. Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling, Advances in Geographic Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
De Petro, P., Battiston, B., Matteotti, R., Petraz, M., Molino, D., Mattu, R., 2016. Gomito, in: Faletti, C. (Ed.), Traumatologia Scheletrica: Imaging Integrato Clinico-Radiologico. Springer, Milano, pp. 99–147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Pain.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Australia’s Mammals Are On The Edge [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. District of Columbia: D.C. Public Schools’ Modernization Program Faces Major Challenges (No. GAO-02-628T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parsons, A.T., 2010. Metal-catalyzed annulations of strained cycloalkanes (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled B Y, 2004. Arts, Briefly; Rachmaninoff Score Unsold. New York Times E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Shekhawat and Dravid, 2005; Wadman, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shekhawat and Dravid, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Graham et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Pain
ISSN (print)2452-073X

Other styles