How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Snieder, R., 2000. The tube worm turns. Nature 406, 939.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brummelkamp, T.R., van Steensel, B., 2015. GENE REGULATION. A HUSH for transgene expression. Science 348, 1433–1434.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meza, L.R., Das, S., Greer, J.R., 2014. Strong, lightweight, and recoverable three-dimensional ceramic nanolattices. Science 345, 1322–1326.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tan, W., Chen, L., Ji, X., Lin, H.-Q., 2014. Photonic simulation of topological superconductor edge state and zero-energy mode at a vortex. Sci. Rep. 4, 7381.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghaye, T., 2008. Building the Reflective Healthcare Organisation. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Liu, S., Forrest, J.Y.-L. (Eds.), 2010. Advances in Grey Systems Research, Understanding Complex Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Al-shargie, F.M., Tang, T.B., Badruddin, N., Kiguchi, M., 2016. Mental Stress Quantification Using EEG Signals, in: Ibrahim, F., Usman, J., Mohktar, M.S., Ahmad, M.Y. (Eds.), International Conference for Innovation in Biomedical Engineering and Life Sciences: ICIBEL2015, 6-8 December 2015, Putrajaya, Malaysia, IFMBE Proceedings. Springer, Singapore, pp. 15–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Pain.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Deadly Double Tornado Hit Nebraska [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Federal Aviation Administration: Stronger Architecture Program Needed to Guide Systems Modernization Efforts (No. GAO-05-266). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kaardal, J.T., 2017. Decoding the Computations of Sensory Neurons (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2008. Over Guantánamo, Justices Come Under Election-Year Spotlight. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Snieder, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Brummelkamp and van Steensel, 2015; Snieder, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brummelkamp and van Steensel, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Tan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Pain
ISSN (print)2452-073X

Other styles