How to format your references using the Journal of Integrative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Integrative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cifelli RL. Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska (1925-2015). Nature 2015;520:158.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steiner L, Ploegh H. Herman Eisen (1918-2014). Nature 2014;516:38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Klöckner H-R, Baan WA, Garrett MA. Investigation of the obscuring circumnuclear torus in the active galaxy Mrk231. Nature 2003;421:821–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Paukner A, Suomi SJ, Visalberghi E, Ferrari PF. Capuchin monkeys display affiliation toward humans who imitate them. Science 2009;325:880–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stoop I, Billiet J, Koch A, Fitzgerald R. Improving Survey Response. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Belzung C, Wigmore P, editors. Neurogenesis and Neural Plasticity. vol. 15. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Guescini M, Stocchi L, Di Loreto C, Fatone C, De Feo P, Stocchi V. Molecular Modifications Induced by Physical Exercise: A Significant Role in Disease Prevention. In: Stocchi V, Feo PD, Hood DA, editors. Role of Physical Exercise in Preventing Disease and Improving the Quality of Life, Milano: Springer; 2007, p. 83–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Integrative Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Newly Discovered Prion Protein Could Cause Fatal Neurodegenerative Disease. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Communications Policy: Issues for the 1990s. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitman S. Operational risk and financial institution leaders’ decision making: A quantitative descriptive correlation study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Müller Climbs the Rankings at an Age When Others Retire. New York Times 2017:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Integrative Medicine
ISSN (print)2095-4964

Other styles