How to format your references using the BMC International Health and Human Rights citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC International Health and Human Rights. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Tso TC. Agriculture of the future. Nature. 2004;428:215–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hoppins S, Nunnari J. Cell Biology. Mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis--the ER connection. Science. 2012;337:1052–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Popovych OV, Yanchuk S, Tass PA. Self-organized noise resistance of oscillatory neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2926.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yin Y, Liu Y-X, Jin YJ, Hall EJ, Barrett JC. PAC1 phosphatase is a transcription target of p53 in signalling apoptosis and growth suppression. Nature. 2003;422:527–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Pétrowski A, Ben-Hamida S. Evolutionary Algorithms. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Majumdar S, editor. Emerging Challenges and Trends in TVET in the Asia-Pacific Region. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Liu W, Cai W, Cui B, Wang M. Synthetic Evaluation Method of Electronic Visual Display Terminal Visual Performance Based on the Letter Search Task. In: Shumaker R, Lackey S, editors. Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality: 7th International Conference, VAMR 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 30–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC International Health and Human Rights.

Blog post
1. Taub B. The Number Of People Killed In Organized Violence Decreased in 2015. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/the-number-of-people-killed-in-organized-violence-decreased-in-2015/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. SBA Loan Monitoring System: Substantial Progress Yet Key Risks and Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mc Adams AN. School psychologists’ perceptions of procedural fidelity in special education. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shear MD. Trump Tells N.R.A.: ‘I Am Going to Come Through for You.’ New York Times. 2017;:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC International Health and Human Rights
AbbreviationBMC Int. Health Hum. Rights
ISSN (online)1472-698X
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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