How to format your references using the BMC International Health and Human Rights citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC International Health and Human Rights. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fridley JD. Extended leaf phenology and the autumn niche in deciduous forest invasions. Nature. 2012;485:359–62.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Perlman PS, Boeke JD. Molecular biology. Ring around the retroelement. Science. 2004;303:182–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Cherry JL, Adler FR, Johnson KP. Islands, equilibria, and speciation. Science. 2002;296:975.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang F, Wang M, Liang C, Jiang H, Shen J, Li H. Thin-layer polymer wrapped enzymes encapsulated in hierarchically mesoporous silica with high activity and enhanced stability. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4421.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Douglas B. Achieving Business Success with GIS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Landry CR, Aubin-Horth N, editors. Ecological Genomics: Ecology and the Evolution of Genes and Genomes. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Emigh RJ, Riley D, Ahmed P. The Turn to Race and Ethnicity in the UK Censuses. In: Riley D, Ahmed P, editors. Changes in Censuses from Imperialist to Welfare States: How Societies and States Count. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016. p. 121–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC International Health and Human Rights.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Smoking Cigarettes Is Associated With An Increased Risk Of Psychosis. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Problems Found With Government Acquisition and Use of Computers From November 1965 to December 1976. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Spisak GM. Particulation. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Billard M. Jewelry Born Of Child’s Play. New York Times. 2010;:E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC International Health and Human Rights
AbbreviationBMC Int. Health Hum. Rights
ISSN (online)1472-698X
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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