How to format your references using the BMC International Health and Human Rights citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC International Health and Human Rights. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Robock A. Nuclear winter is a real and present danger. Nature. 2011;473:275–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Li D, Caffrey M. Renaturing membrane proteins in the lipid cubic phase, a nanoporous membrane mimetic. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5806.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Finn CA, Sisson TW, Deszcz-Pan M. Aerogeophysical measurements of collapse-prone hydrothermally altered zones at Mount Rainier volcano. Nature. 2001;409:600–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jo Y, Jung J, Lee JW, Shin D, Park H, Nam KT, et al. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5090.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Park S, Guille-Escuret G. Sociobiology vs Socioecology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Baeza-Yates R, Glaz J, Gzyl H, Hüsler J, Palacios JL, editors. Recent Advances in Applied Probability. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Enslin P, Tjiattas M. Democratic Inclusion and Lifelong Learning in a Globalising World. In: Aspin DN, Chapman J, Evans K, Bagnall R, editors. Second International Handbook of Lifelong Learning. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 77–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC International Health and Human Rights.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Russia Is Using An Ingenious Method To Stop People Abusing Disabled Parking Spots. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Issues Related to Competition and Subscriber Rates in the Cable Television Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lefebvre K. Racial Prejudice, Individualism, and Political Identity: Understanding the Forty-Year Trend of Anti-Welfare Spending Preferences. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Rally, and a Favorable Schedule, Lift the Mets’ Hopes. New York Times. 2016;:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC International Health and Human Rights
AbbreviationBMC Int. Health Hum. Rights
ISSN (online)1472-698X
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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