How to format your references using the Journal of Institute of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Institute of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Redfield S. Astronomy. Gathering interstellar gas. Science. 2012 Jun 8;336(6086):1243–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Skinner G, Gorenstein P. Astronomy (communication arising): black holes, fleas and microlithography. Nature. 2003 Nov 20;426(6964):245–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arce SH, Wu P-H, Tseng Y. Fast and accurate automated cell boundary determination for fluorescence microscopy. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2266.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Menuz V, Howell KS, Gentina S, Epstein S, Riezman I, Fornallaz-Mulhauser M, et al. Protection of C. elegans from anoxia by HYL-2 ceramide synthase. Science. 2009 Apr 17;324(5925):381–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fraser J, Simkins BJ. Enterprise Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Hakeem KR, editor. Crop Production and Global Environmental Issues. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XIV, 598 p. 39 illus., 33 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu J, Xu T, Xue Q, Beake BD. Nanoindentation, Nanoscratch and Nanoimpact Testing of Silicon-Based Materials with Nanostructured Surfaces. In: Bradt RC, Munz D, Sakai M, White KW, editors. Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics: Active Materials, Nanoscale Materials, Composites, Glass and Fundamentals. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005. p. 43–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Institute of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Code-A-Cola: How To Hide Secret Messages Using Fizzy Drinks [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Assessment of Testing Vertical Line Array Difar Sonobuoy AN/SS2-77. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Aug. Report No.: PSAD-78-120.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wellman TE. Employment Discrimination against Military Spouses: Illegal Contrary to Popular Belief and Practice [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wertheimer LK. The Middle East Conflict on Campus. New York Times. 2016 Aug 3;ED10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Institute of Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Inst. Med.
ISSN (print)1993-2979
ISSN (online)1993-2987

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