How to format your references using the Journal of Institute of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Institute of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D. Singapore surges upwards. Nature. 2008 Oct 23;455(7216):1144–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birch HM, Clayton J. Cell biology: close-up on cell biology. Nature. 2007 Apr 19;446(7138):937–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bell FI, McEwen IJ, Viney C. Fibre science: supercontraction stress in wet spider dragline. Nature. 2002 Mar 7;416(6876):37.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Duan D, Liu Y, Tian F, Li D, Huang X, Zhao Z, et al. Pressure-induced metallization of dense (H₂S)₂H₂ with high-Tc superconductivity. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 10;4:6968.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korhonen J, Savolainen T, Soininen J. Deploying IPv6 in 3GPP Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Li Q, Aili D, Hjuler HA, Jensen JO, editors. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells: Approaches, Status, and Perspectives. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XXVI, 545 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Van Assche K, Teampău P. Introduction: Sulina as Center and Margin. In: Teampău P, editor. Local Cosmopolitanism: Imagining and (Re-)Making Privileged Places. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 49–55. (SpringerBriefs in Geography).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Institute of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Happened To The Oil From The Deepwater Horizon Spill? ‘Marine Snow’ Provides A Clue [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Needs To Better Plan, Develop, and Implement Its Major ADP Systems Redesign Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Feb. Report No.: HRD-81-47.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Charpentier DT. Why Dey Talk Like Dat?: A Study of the Status of Cajun English as a Dialect or an Accent [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. Children’s Books. New York Times. 1997 Apr 27;729.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Institute of Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Inst. Med.
ISSN (print)1993-2979
ISSN (online)1993-2987

Other styles