How to format your references using the Journal of Institute of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Institute of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sporn MB. Perspective: The big C - for Chemoprevention. Nature. 2011 Mar 24;471(7339):S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maraia RJ, Rijal K. Structural biology: A transcriptional specialist resolved. Nature. 2015 Dec 10;528(7581):204–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Osborne I, Lavine M, Coontz R. Materials for electronics. Looking beyond silicon. Introduction. Science. 2010 Mar 26;327(5973):1595.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ahn S, Seo E, Kim K, Lee SJ. Controlled cellular uptake and drug efficacy of nanotherapeutics. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1997.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paterson JC. Lean Auditing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Kury H, Redo S, Shea E, editors. Women and Children as Victims and Offenders: Background, Prevention, Reintegration: Suggestions for Succeeding Generations (Volume 2). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. LXXXII, 860 p. 55 illus., 48 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Anelli R. Recycling and Restoration: Adding New Meaning to Historical Buildings Through Minimal Interventions. In: Condello A, Lehmann S, editors. Sustainable Lina: Lina Bo Bardi’s Adaptive Reuse Projects. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 97–160.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Institute of Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Two New Species Of Vampire Crabs Discovered. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Child Care and Early Childhood Education: More Information Sharing and Program Review by HHS Could Enhance Access for Families with Limited English Proficiency (Chinese Version). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Aug. Report No.: GAO-06-950.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Copeland AD. A qualitative study of clinical oncology nurses’ perceptions of work-life balance [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Woolfe Z, Tommasini A, Allen D, Oestreich JR. Beautiful Music to Their Ears. New York Times. 2016 Dec 15;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Institute of Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Inst. Med.
ISSN (print)1993-2979
ISSN (online)1993-2987

Other styles