How to format your references using the Journal of Institute of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Institute of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson K. Personal finance. So what should you invest in? Science. 2006 Sep 8;313(5792):1456.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang L, Sigworth FJ. Structure of the BK potassium channel in a lipid membrane from electron cryomicroscopy. Nature. 2009 Sep 10;461(7261):292–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peters AJ, Chen SX, Komiyama T. Emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity during motor learning. Nature. 2014 Jun 12;510(7504):263–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vajk OP, Mang PK, Greven M, Gehring PM, Lynn JW. Quantum impurities in the two-dimensional spin one-half Heisenberg antiferromagnet. Science. 2002 Mar 1;295(5560):1691–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Villalta T. The Large-Cap Portfolio. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Tamir DE, Rishe ND, Kandel A, editors. Fifty Years of Fuzzy Logic and its Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XIII, 684 p. 238 illus., 22 illus. in color. (Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing; vol. 326).
A chapter in an edited book
Yoshihara N, Veneziani R. Profits and exploitation: a reappraisal. In: Kusuoka S, Maruyama T, editors. Advances in Mathematical Economics Volume 16. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2012. p. 85–109. (Advances in Mathematical Economics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Institute of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Up Side Of Feeling Down: New Theory Links Neurotic Thinking To Creativity [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information on the Requirement for Strategic Airlift. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Jun. Report No.: PSAD-76-148.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luse KM. Invariants of knots, graphs, and Feynman diagrams [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick B. Goldie’s. New York Times. 2016 Nov 23;D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Institute of Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Inst. Med.
ISSN (print)1993-2979
ISSN (online)1993-2987

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