How to format your references using the Electronics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Curry, “Journal club. A crystallographer takes a jaunt into immunology,” Nature, vol. 457, no. 7226, p. 133, Jan. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Attisano and J. L. Wrana, “Signal transduction by the TGF-beta superfamily,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5573, pp. 1646–1647, May 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. V. Rao, D. M. Wolf, and A. P. Arkin, “Control, exploitation and tolerance of intracellular noise,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6912, pp. 231–237, Nov. 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Komeda, Y. Kim, M. Kawai, B. N. J. Persson, and H. Ueba, “Lateral hopping of molecules induced by excitation of internal vibration mode,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5562, pp. 2055–2058, Mar. 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. R. Thie and G. E. Keough, An Introduction to Linear Programming and Game Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
An edited book
K. Ikeda, Bifurcation Theory for Hexagonal Agglomeration in Economic Geography. Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Minghetti, M. Santimaria, and A. D’Arpino, “Classificazione dei radiofarmaci,” in Sperimentazione e registrazione dei radiofarmaci: Normative e procedure, G. Lucignani, Ed. Milano: Springer, 2013, pp. 39–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronics Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Edward Snowden Says Encryption May Stop Us From Finding Aliens,” IFLScience, Sep. 23, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Transportation Infrastructure: Advantages and Disadvantages of Wrap-Up Insurance for Large Construction Projects,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-99-155, Jun. 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Chen, “Essays On Using Weather Derivatives In Dairy Production,” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
STEVEN LEE MYERS; Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting for this article, “Prosecutor Says Chechen Rebel Had Editor Killed,” New York Times, p. A11, Jun. 17, 2005.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronics Letters
AbbreviationElectron. Lett.
ISSN (print)0013-5194
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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