How to format your references using the Electronics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. W. Vaupel, “Biodemography of human ageing,” Nature, vol. 464, no. 7288, pp. 536–542, Mar. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Imura and M. Tomonaga, “Differences between chimpanzees and humans in visual temporal integration,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 3256, Nov. 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. M. Donlea, N. Ramanan, and P. J. Shaw, “Use-dependent plasticity in clock neurons regulates sleep need in Drosophila,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5923, pp. 105–108, Apr. 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Changela et al., “Molecular basis of metal-ion selectivity and zeptomolar sensitivity by CueR,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5638, pp. 1383–1387, Sep. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Davies, Designing and Developing Scalable IP Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
H. Fujita and A. Selamat, Eds., Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques: 13th International Conference, SoMeT 2014, Langkawi, Malaysia, September 22-24, 2014. Revised Selected Papers, vol. 513. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Jiang, J. Tang, and B. Luo, “Graph Matching with Nonnegative Sparse Model,” in Graph-Based Representations in Pattern Recognition: 9th IAPR-TC-15 International Workshop, GbRPR 2013, Vienna, Austria, May 15-17, 2013. Proceedings, W. G. Kropatsch, N. M. Artner, Y. Haxhimusa, and X. Jiang, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronics Letters.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Racehorses Defy Expectations and Continue to get Faster,” IFLScience, 24-Jun-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “High Risk Series: NASA Contract Management,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HR-93-11, Dec. 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. N. Roberson, “Motivation towards learning perceived in Socratic seminar versus traditional lecture,” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, “Netflix, With Money to Burn, Draws the Ire of Spurned TV Executives,” New York Times, p. B4, 13-Jun-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronics Letters
AbbreviationElectron. Lett.
ISSN (print)0013-5194
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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