How to format your references using the Electronics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Eisenstein, “Taste: More than meets the mouth,” Nature, vol. 468, no. 7327, pp. S18-9, Dec. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. K. Takeuchi and B. G. Bruneau, “Directed transdifferentiation of mouse mesoderm to heart tissue by defined factors,” Nature, vol. 459, no. 7247, pp. 708–711, Jun. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. J. Shoemaker, D. E. Eyler, and R. Green, “Dom34:Hbs1 promotes subunit dissociation and peptidyl-tRNA drop-off to initiate no-go decay,” Science, vol. 330, no. 6002, pp. 369–372, Oct. 2010.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Maxmen, W. E. Browne, M. Q. Martindale, and G. Giribet, “Neuroanatomy of sea spiders implies an appendicular origin of the protocerebral segment,” Nature, vol. 437, no. 7062, pp. 1144–1148, Oct. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Traitler, Food Industry Innovation School, The. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
R. R. Dietert and R. W. Luebke, Eds., Immunotoxicity, Immune Dysfunction, and Chronic Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
I. P. Girsang and J. S. Dhupia, “Machine Tools for Machining,” in Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, A. Y. C. Nee, Ed. London: Springer, 2015, pp. 811–865.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronics Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “You Can Now Send Your Remains To The Moon,” IFLScience, Aug. 25, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “First Look at Senior Executive Service Performance Awards,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, FPCD-80-74, Aug. 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. A. Cooper, “Missouri elementary teacher certification programs and the education provided on how boys and girls learn differently,” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, “Barbecue, Smoked and Sauced,” New York Times, p. NJ9, Feb. 15, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronics Letters
AbbreviationElectron. Lett.
ISSN (print)0013-5194
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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