How to format your references using the Electronics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W. Arthur, “The emerging conceptual framework of evolutionary developmental biology,” Nature, vol. 415, no. 6873, pp. 757–764, Feb. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Q. Gao and R. A. Marcus, “Strange and unconventional isotope effects in ozone formation,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5528, pp. 259–263, Jul. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. E. Canfield, S. W. Poulton, and G. M. Narbonne, “Late-Neoproterozoic deep-ocean oxygenation and the rise of animal life,” Science, vol. 315, no. 5808, pp. 92–95, Jan. 2007.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Das et al., “Tissue multifractality and Born approximation in analysis of light scattering: a novel approach for precancers detection,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6129, Aug. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. H. Gerardi, Settleability Problems and Loss of Solids in the Activated Sludge Process. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.
An edited book
P. Vittorini, R. Gennari, I. Marenzi, F. de la Prieta, and J. M. C. Rodríguez, Eds., International Workshop on Evidence-Based Technology Enhanced Learning, vol. 152. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
R. de Braine and G. Roodt, “Personal and Situational Work-Based Identity Antecedents,” in Conceptualising and Measuring Work Identity: South-African Perspectives and Findings, P. G. W. Jansen and G. Roodt, Eds. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2015, pp. 87–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronics Letters.

Blog post
B. Taub, “Earthquake-Proof Coconut Houses Could Protect Against Natural Disasters,” IFLScience, 06-Jul-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Business Systems Modernization: Strategy for Evolving DOD’s Business Enterprise Architecture Offers a Conceptual Approach, but Execution Details Are Needed,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-07-451, Apr. 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Goggin, “The European Capital of Culture: The politics of a becoming Europe,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “U.S. and Algeria: Two Outsiders, but No Room for Both,” New York Times, p. B11, 23-Jun-2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronics Letters
AbbreviationElectron. Lett.
ISSN (print)0013-5194
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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