How to format your references using the Applied Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Polster B (2002) Mathematics: What is the best way to lace your shoes? Nature 420:476
A journal article with 2 authors
Soshnikova N, Duboule D (2009) Epigenetic temporal control of mouse Hox genes in vivo. Science 324:1320–1323
A journal article with 3 authors
Kobayashi K, Yoshimura J, Hasegawa E (2013) Coexistence of sexual individuals and genetically isolated asexual counterparts in a thrips. Sci Rep 3:3286
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Du X, Wen J, Wang Y, et al (2018) Hippo/Mst signalling couples metabolic state and immune function of CD8α+ dendritic cells. Nature 558:141–145

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smaini L (2012) RF Analog Impairments Modeling for Communication Systems Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Fouché G (2007) Accelerated VB 2005. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
Revathi A, Venkataramani Y (2015) Text Independent Speaker and Emotion Independent Speech Recognition in Emotional Environment. In: Mandal JK, Satapathy SC, Kumar Sanyal M, et al (eds) Information Systems Design and Intelligent Applications: Proceedings of Second International Conference INDIA 2015, Volume 1. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 43–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Intelligence.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Nest Architecture Determines Ants’ Capacity To Forage Collectively. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984) [Comments on Proposed MOU To Govern GAO Disclosure of FCC Documents]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
May LA (2009) Teacher compensation and the academic achievement of high school students. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2007) In a Word, Fabulous. New York Times NJ6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Intelligence
AbbreviationAppl. Intell.
ISSN (print)0924-669X
ISSN (online)1573-7497
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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