How to format your references using the Applied Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldstein RH (2001) Paleoenvironment. Clues from fluid inclusions. Science 294:1009–1011
A journal article with 2 authors
Meguro A, Sato Y (2014) Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice. Sci Rep 4:4555
A journal article with 3 authors
Alexander JM, Diez JM, Levine JM (2015) Novel competitors shape species’ responses to climate change. Nature 525:515–518
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Eldar A, Chary VK, Xenopoulos P, et al (2009) Partial penetrance facilitates developmental evolution in bacteria. Nature 460:510–514

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nicholls DL, Piergrossi JC, Gibertoni C de S, Daniel MA (2013) Psychoanalytic Thinking in Occupational Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Ribes R (2008) Primary Care English. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Banach R (2008) Model Based Refinement and the Tools of Tomorrow. In: Börger E, Butler M, Bowen JP, Boca P (eds) Abstract State Machines, B and Z: First International Conference, ABZ 2008, London, UK, September 16-18, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 42–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Intelligence.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Increase In Gun Deaths Linked To “Stand Your Ground” Law In Florida. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Transportation Security: TSA Has Made Progress in Implementing the Transportation Worker Identification Credential Program, but Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bratton KJ (2014) Modeling and Control of Heterogeneous Tumors Under Chemotherapy. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sparer MS (2017) The New Obamacare: Medicaid. New York Times A27

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Intelligence
AbbreviationAppl. Intell.
ISSN (print)0924-669X
ISSN (online)1573-7497
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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