How to format your references using the Applied Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Messersmith PB (2010) Materials science. Holding on by a hard-shell thread. Science 328:180–181
A journal article with 2 authors
Čorić I, List B (2012) Asymmetric spiroacetalization catalysed by confined Brønsted acids. Nature 483:315–319
A journal article with 3 authors
Castelnovo C, Moessner R, Sondhi SL (2008) Magnetic monopoles in spin ice. Nature 451:42–45
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Isberg J, Hammersberg J, Johansson E, et al (2002) High carrier mobility in single-crystal plasma-deposited diamond. Science 297:1670–1672

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips JJ, Brantley W, Phillips PP (2011) Project Management ROI. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Sidharth BG, Honsell F, de Angelis A (2006) Frontiers of Fundamental Physics: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium “Frontiers of Fundamental and Computational Physics”, Udine, Italy, 26–29 September 2004. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Michel RL (2005) Tritium in the Hydrologic Cycle. In: Aggarwal PK, Gat JR, Froehlich KFO (eds) Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Past, Present and Future of a Developing Science. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 53–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Intelligence.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) WHO Releases Hit List Of 12 Bacteria That Pose Biggest Threat To Human Health. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Acquisition Reform: NASA’s Internet Service Improves Access to Contracting Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graves KA (2012) An Exploration of Organizational Commitment among Generation X Leaders. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) The Seasonal Mix: Camel, Fur and Leather. New York Times E6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Intelligence
AbbreviationAppl. Intell.
ISSN (print)0924-669X
ISSN (online)1573-7497
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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