How to format your references using the Applied Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lister AM (2013) The role of behaviour in adaptive morphological evolution of African proboscideans. Nature 500:331–334
A journal article with 2 authors
Yao Z, Shafer OT (2014) The Drosophila circadian clock is a variably coupled network of multiple peptidergic units. Science 343:1516–1520
A journal article with 3 authors
Neumann G, Noda T, Kawaoka Y (2009) Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus. Nature 459:931–939
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Henson SM, Costantino RF, Cushing JM, et al (2001) Lattice effects observed in chaotic dynamics of experimental populations. Science 294:602–605

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Darbyshire P, Hampton D (2014) Hedge Fund Modelling and Analysis Using MATLAB ®. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Szyszczak E, Gronden JW van de (2013) Financing Services of General Economic Interest: Reform and Modernization. T. M. C. Asser Press, The Hague, The Netherlands
A chapter in an edited book
Oh SH, Lhm JT (2007) CDMA2000 1X & 1X EV-DO. In: Park Y, Adachi F (eds) Enhanced Radio Access Technologies for Next Generation Mobile Communication. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 151–190

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Intelligence.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Man Missing Most Of His Brain Challenges Everything We Thought We Knew About Consciousness. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974) Problems And Progress Of The U.S. Army Materiel Command’s Automated Data Processing Service Center Concept. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward S (2009) Historiography, prophecy, and literature: “Divina retribución” and its underlying ideological agenda. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2016) When the Loch Ness Monster Was in The Times. New York Times C28

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Intelligence
AbbreviationAppl. Intell.
ISSN (print)0924-669X
ISSN (online)1573-7497
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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