How to format your references using the Journal of Innovation in Digital Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Innovation in Digital Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.-E. Briciu, Wavelet analysis of lunar semidiurnal tidal influence on selected inland rivers across the globe, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4193.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.S. Skourtis, D.N. Beratan, Biochemistry. Photosynthesis from the protein’s perspective, Science. 316 (2007) 703–704.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.T. Holman, A.M. Pivovar, M.D. Ward, Engineering crystal symmetry and polar order in molecular host frameworks, Science. 294 (2001) 1907–1911.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.C. Chapman, A.W. Blain, R.J. Ivison, I.R. Smail, A median redshift of 2.4 for galaxies bright at submillimetre wavelengths, Nature. 422 (2003) 695–698.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.W. Jones, Economic Theory and the Ancient Mediterranean, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
R. Kitamura, M. Kuwahara, eds., Simulation Approaches in Transportation Analysis: Recent Advances and Challenges, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Wang, D. Vitanovski, B. Georgescu, R. Ionasec, I. Voigt, S. Datta, C. Gruner, B. Herzog, P. Biaggi, G. Funka-Lea, D. Comaniciu, Automatic Detection and Quantification of Mitral Regurgitation on TTE with Application to Assist Mitral Clip Planning and Evaluation, in: K. Drechsler, M. Erdt, M.G. Linguraru, C. Oyarzun Laura, K. Sharma, R. Shekhar, S. Wesarg (Eds.), Clinical Image-Based Procedures. From Planning to Intervention: International Workshop, CLIP 2012, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2012, Nice, France, October 5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Innovation in Digital Ecosystems.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, 17 Jokes That Only Smart People Will Really Appreciate, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Genetically Engineered Crops: USDA Needs to Enhance Oversight and Better Understand Impacts of Unintended Mixing with Other Crops, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.M. Hart, R&D Characteristics and Organizational Structure: Case Studies of University-Industry Research Centers, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.M. Chapman, Uncomfortable Accounting, New York Times. (2012) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Innovation in Digital Ecosystems
AbbreviationJ. Innov. Digit. Ecosyst.
ISSN (print)2352-6645

Other styles