How to format your references using the Journal of Innovation in Digital Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Innovation in Digital Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Gewin, The art of self-defence, Nature. 452 (2008) 498–500.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.W. Popp, L.E. Maquat, RNA. A TRICK’n way to see the pioneer round of translation, Science. 347 (2015) 1316–1317.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.C. Wang, E.J. O’Rourke, G. Ruvkun, Fat metabolism links germline stem cells and longevity in C. elegans, Science. 322 (2008) 957–960.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Zhao, R. He, K.T. Rim, T. Schiros, K.S. Kim, H. Zhou, C. Gutiérrez, S.P. Chockalingam, C.J. Arguello, L. Pálová, D. Nordlund, M.S. Hybertsen, D.R. Reichman, T.F. Heinz, P. Kim, A. Pinczuk, G.W. Flynn, A.N. Pasupathy, Visualizing individual nitrogen dopants in monolayer graphene, Science. 333 (2011) 999–1003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.K. Çapin, I.S. Pandzic, N. Magnenat-Thalmann, D. Thalmann, Avatars in Networked Virtual Environments, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2001.
An edited book
M. Kirst, N. Schaefer-McDaniel, S. Hwang, P. O’Campo, eds., Converging Disciplines: A Transdisciplinary Research Approach to Urban Health Problems, Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
O. Brook, P. Boyle, R. Flowerdew, Geographic Analysis of Cultural Consumption, in: J. Stillwell, P. Norman, C. Thomas, P. Surridge (Eds.), Spatial and Social Disparities: Understanding Population Trends and Processes: Volume 2, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010: pp. 67–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Innovation in Digital Ecosystems.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, The Magnetic Field Across The Magellanic Clouds Has Been Mapped for the First Time, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over System’s Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Korobenko, Advanced Fluid–Structure Interaction Techniques in Application to Horizontal and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Nordland, S. Timur, Turkey Fires 15,000 More Public Workers in Crackdown, New York Times. (2016) A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Innovation in Digital Ecosystems
AbbreviationJ. Innov. Digit. Ecosyst.
ISSN (print)2352-6645

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