How to format your references using the BMC Blood Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Blood Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Tesche C. QUANTUM MECHANICS: Enhanced: Schrodinger’s Cat Is Out of the Hat. Science. 2000;290:720–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Weaver P, Johnson D. Biodiversity: Think big for marine conservation. Nature. 2012;483:399.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kürner J, Frangakis AS, Baumeister W. Cryo-electron tomography reveals the cytoskeletal structure of Spiroplasma melliferum. Science. 2005;307:436–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kong A, Thorleifsson G, Frigge ML, Vilhjalmsson BJ, Young AI, Thorgeirsson TE, et al. The nature of nurture: Effects of parental genotypes. Science. 2018;359:424–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kapterev A. Presentation Secrets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Martino F, Defilippi C, Caudana R, editors. Imaging of Pediatric Bone and Joint Trauma. Milano: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stoimenov N, Chakraborty S, Thiele L. Interface-Based Design of Real-Time Systems. In: Chakraborty S, Eberspächer J, editors. Advances in Real-Time Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 83–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Blood Disorders.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Nanoparticles Give Tumors One-Two Punch By Timing Drug Delivery. IFLScience. 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Implementation of P.L. 94-142 as It Relates to Handicapped Delinquents in the District of Columbia. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Reitz MA. Nonlinear Robust Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors With Applications to Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Lugo, Paying No Mind to His Elbow, Earns Dividends. New York Times. 2017;:D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Blood Disorders
ISSN (print)1471-2326

Other styles