How to format your references using the BMC Blood Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Blood Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fontana W. Chemistry. Pulling strings. Science. 2006;314:1552–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ortega-Jimenez VM, Dudley R. Spiderweb deformation induced by electrostatically charged insects. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2108.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sturm M, Racine C, Tape K. Climate change. Increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic. Nature. 2001;411:546–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kim KH, Späh A, Pathak H, Perakis F, Mariedahl D, Amann-Winkel K, et al. Response to Comment on “Maxima in the thermodynamic response and correlation functions of deeply supercooled water.” Science. 2018;360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chappell D. The JCT Minor Works Building Contracts 2005. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Kou G. Data Processing for the AHP/ANP. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chamlagain D, Gautam D. Seismic Hazard in the Himalayan Intermontane Basins: An Example from Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. In: Nibanupudi HK, Shaw R, editors. Mountain Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015. p. 73–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Blood Disorders.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Nike Will Release Self-Lacing “Back To The Future” Shoes For 2016. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund: Revenue Sources, Uses, and Spending Controls. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hao S. An Introduction to Discrete Minimal Surfaces via the Enneper Surface. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Otis J. Competing for Glory, and Support. New York Times. 2017;:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Blood Disorders
ISSN (print)1471-2326

Other styles